Synapses and Neural Arithmetic

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What are input zones?
Where the dendrites receive signals from other neurons.
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What is the integration zone?
Where signals are combined, and if the signal is strong enough it is transformed into an output signal.
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What is the conduction zone?
Where the output signal is conducted along the axon away from the cell body.
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What is the output zone?
Where the axon splits into axon terminals, which dock onto the next neuron/ other target cells and transmit output signals.
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What are the five properties of conduction?
Membrane potential changes gradually, sub-membrane threshold potentials smaller at more distant locations, the same action potential occurs along the axon, action potentials take some time to travel, action potentials only travel in one direction.
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What is the mechanism for chemical synapses?
Action potential at pre-synaptic knob ---> Ca channels open, influx of Ca2+ ---> Vesicles with neurotransmitter fuse with cell membrane, release chemical ---> Neurotransmitter diffuses across cleft, binds to post-synaptic receptor --
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*CONTINUED*
-> Influx of ions into post-synapse creates generator potential ---> Free neurotransmitter hydrolysed or recycles.
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Where are action potentials initiated?
At the integration zones, where there are large concentrations of Na+ and K+ channels.
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What is spatial summation?
Action potentials arriving at the same time from different synapses.
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What is temporal summation?
Action potentials arriving close together from the same synapse.
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What causes muscle contraction?
An action potential at a neuromuscular junction.
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Card 2

Front

What is the integration zone?

Back

Where signals are combined, and if the signal is strong enough it is transformed into an output signal.

Card 3

Front

What is the conduction zone?

Back

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Card 4

Front

What is the output zone?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the five properties of conduction?

Back

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