SY3 Crime

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Bowlby
Lack of motherly love produces a psychopathic personality
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Eysenck
Extroverts harder to socialise and so more likely to commit crime
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Lombroso
Many distinctive features found on prison inmates suggesting that criminal behaviour was inborn
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Merton
Studied individual responses to the success culture of the American Dream
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Cohen
Status frustration helped to explain non- utilitarian crime
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Miller
Focal concerns such as excitment, smartness and toughness, when in extremes led to crime
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Cloward and Ohlin
The type of subculture that youths joined depended on the predominant type of subculture in their area: conflict, criminal and retreatism
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Matza
Subcultural theories made members of subculutres seem more 'different' than was really the case - they were really just like the rest of us in society
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Shaw and McKay
Chicago city could be divided up into concentric rings according to crime rates. Highest crime rate = zone of transition
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Gill
Luke Street, Liverpool used to be a respectable area until council started housing problem families there. Area became labelled and led to increased crime
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Becker
No act is intrinsically deviant
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Lemert
defining acts as 'primary deviance' and their social reaction as 'secondary deviance'
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Cicourel
Negotiation of justice
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Fuller
Label does not always become a self fulfilling prophecy
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Cohen (labelling)
Mods and Rockers
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Kolko
Study of meat hygiene laws in USA and found that laws what seemed like consumer laws in interest of all were actually encouraged by the larger firms to knock out competition
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Chambliss
'Non decision making' e.g. Nestle
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Pearce
the amount of money involved in working class crime is a 'drop in the ocean' comparing to money involved in middle class crime
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Gordon
Crime is a perfectly natural response in the competitive "dog eat dog" society of modern capitalism
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Taylor, Walton and Young
w/class crime is a form of resistance against the injustices of capitalism. They put forward a 'formula' for a 'fully social theory of deviance' which consisted of 7 points
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Gilroy
Claimed that the idea of 'black criminality' was exaggerated and mostly due to police racism which thrived in 'canteen culture'. Gilroy argues that those black youths who do commit crime were motivated by anger that black people still have about colo
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Hall
concentrated on 'muggings' that he believes were a moral panic invented by the British Media to distract the public from greater problems of British Capitalist Society at the time.
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Lea and Young
They identifies 3 major causes of crime; Subculture, Relative Deprivation, Marginalisation. The disparity bewteen high material expectations and reality of lifestyle leads to feelings of unjust relative deprivation
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Wilson
Links the rise in serioud crimes to the spiralling volumes of incivilities; mugging, graffiti, vandalism. His solution was target hardening by taking measures to reduce opportunities e.g. CCTV
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Wilson and Kelling
'Broken Windows Thesis' which states that if minor incivilities left unchecked, then wider anti-social behaviour and more serious crime will follow
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Zero Tolerance
Clampdown by the police of all crimes including incivilities
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Murray
Crime is concentrated amongst the dysfunctional families of the underclass (e.g. lone parent families)
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Heidensohn
We live in a male dominated society and so even sociologists have been mainly concerned with male crime
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Sex- role theory
Socialisation of males can reinforce characteristics of toughness, aggressiveness and sexual conquest. Female socialisation traditionally stressed aspects of caring and domesticity. However these attitudes are viewed as outdated and stereotypical
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Heidensohn
Women commit so few crimes becuase of the way in which they are socially and ideologically controlled. Failure to conform to society's rules and norms results in the label of 'unfeminine'
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Adler
Claims that womens liberation/ feminism has led to an increase in female crime. However no attempt has been made to measure the concept of womens liberation
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Carlen
Stresses the likelihood of economic problems leading to more female crime. She sees w/class women as having rejected the 'class deal' and the 'gender deal' turning to crime remaining an attractive alternative to the effort of finding legal employment
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Messerschmidt
Claims that male crime in all classes is an attempt to demonstrate their masculinity - especially with growing power of women and decline of traditional jobs
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Card 2

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Extroverts harder to socialise and so more likely to commit crime

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Eysenck

Card 3

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Many distinctive features found on prison inmates suggesting that criminal behaviour was inborn

Back

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Card 4

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Studied individual responses to the success culture of the American Dream

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Card 5

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Status frustration helped to explain non- utilitarian crime

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