Sustainable management

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What is the definition of conservation?
Maintenance of biodiversity, including diversity between species, genetic diversity within species and maintenance of a variety of habitats and ecosystems endangered by human activity.
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What is the definition of preservation?
Protection of the environment, keeping it in an undisturbed condition and to protect wildlife or natural resources in a designated area without causing any damage to the environment.
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What is coppicing?
Involves cutting a deciduous tree trunk close to the ground to encourage new growth.
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What is coppicing a example of?
A way of managing small-scale timber production.
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What happens once cut?
Several new shoots grow from the cut surface and eventually mature into stems of quite narrow diameter.
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What can the tree be used for once cut?
Used for firewood, fencing or furniture.
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What are examples of trees that go through this coppicing cycle?
Oak, ash, willow and hazel.
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Why do the trees have to be cut at 35/40 degrees facing away from the stump?
So rain water will drain off away from the stump.
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What is rotational coppicing?
Where a woodland is divided into sections and cut one section each year until they'd all been cut.
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What does this mean?
By the time they want to coppice the first section again, the new stems have matured and are ready to cut.
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Why are some trees allowed to not be coppiced?
They are called standards and are eventually harvested to supply larger pieces of timber.
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Why is rotational coppicing beneficial?
Beneficial for biodiversity as when woodlands are left unmanaged they go through succession which blocks light to the floor of the woodland and will reduce the range of species that can grow there.
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What will different areas of the woodland be provided with when using rotational coppicing?
Provided with different types of habitats, increasing the number and diversity of species that can grow there.
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What does pollarding involve?
Involves cutting the trunk higher up.
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When is pollarding useful?
When the population size of deer is high as they like to eat the emerging shoots from a coppiced stem. If higher up, they cannot reach.
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What can pollarding be used to prevent?
Prevent trees and shrubs outgrowing their allotted space.
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What trees can pollarding be used on?
Ash, elm, oak and london plane.
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Describe pollarding young trees
The framework may be one stem cut to a metre high where a mass of stems will grow from the top.
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What will happen as the wood lays down annual rings?
The base will strengthen and form a thickened base where the shoot meets the trunk.
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What does large-scale timber production involve?
Clear-felling
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Why is clear-felling rarely practiced in the UK?
It can destroy habitats on a large scale.
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What other problems can clear-felling cause?
Can reduce soil mineral levels and leave soil susceptible to erosion. Soil may run into waterways, polluting them.
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Why may water ways be polluted after clear-felling?
Trees usually remove water from soil and stop soil from being washed away by rain. Maintain soil nutrient levels in the carbon and nitrogen cycles.
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What are the main principles of modern sustainable forestry?
Any tree harvested is replaced, the forest must as a whole maintain its biodiversity, climate, mineral and water cycle. Local people should derive benefit.
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What does selective cutting involve?
Removing just the largest and most valuable trees in the forest to leave the habitat largely unaffected.
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Why is sustainable management a difficult job?
It involves a balance between harvesting wood and conservation.
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How do foresters try to maximise this?
Control pests and pathogens, only plant tree species known to grow well, position trees an optimum distance apart.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the definition of preservation?

Back

Protection of the environment, keeping it in an undisturbed condition and to protect wildlife or natural resources in a designated area without causing any damage to the environment.

Card 3

Front

What is coppicing?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is coppicing a example of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What happens once cut?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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