Surgery 1845 - 1918

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What was used as pain relief in the early 1800's?
Alcohol and sometimes patients were knocked out, but mainly the surgeon just had to work as quickly as possible.
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What was the first anaesthetic to be discovered and by who?
Nitrous oxide (laughing gas) by Humphry Davy.
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What were the problems with Nitrous oxide?
It didn't work on everyone and when Horace Wells did a demonstration the patient was in agony, putting people off using it.
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What was the second anaesthetic to be discovered, who by and when?
Ether, by John Warren in 1846.
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What were the problems with ether?
It was an irritant, it irritated the patients eyes and lungs, it had a vile smell and was very flammable.
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When and who by was chloroform discovered as an anaesthetic?
James Simpson in 1847.
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Why was there opposition to chloroform?
Speed was an important part of surgery, there was non dosages and patients like Hannah Greener died, riskier operations began to be attempted, the Lancet said it was unnatural, religious beliefs and it was untested.
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What was surgery like before antiseptics?
Surgeons operated in their ordinary clothes, there would be audiences in the operating theatre, surgeons wouldn't was their hands and equipment wasn't cleaned.
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What did Semmelweiss do?
He forced doctors on the childbirth ward to wash their hands in chloride of lime solution before operating on patients.
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What did Joseph Lister do?
He read Pasteur's germ theory and came up with carbolic spray, soaking bandages and equipment in carbolic acid and using ligatures disinfected in carbolic acid.
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Why was there opposition to carbolic acid?
It seemed very extreme, soaked the operating theatre and cracked surgeons hands, his methods were hard to copy, he kept changing his methods, speed was still important, Pasteur's idea spread slowly and he didn't perform public demonstrations.
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When were blood groups discovered and who by?
1900 by Landstiener.
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What happened in WW1 helping blood transfusions?
Scientists discovered adding sodium citrate stopped it clotting, adding citrate glucose meant it could be stored for longer and then they separated the cells packing them in ice to be stored for even longer.
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When were and who by were x-rays discovered?
1895, Wilhelm Rontgen.
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How did the war help the development of x-rays?
Made portable, more widely used, installed in hospitals along the front line, used to locate bullets and shrapnel and people became more skilled at using them.
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What factors helped in the development of surgery?
War, Communication, Individuals, Science and Technology.
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Card 2

Front

What was the first anaesthetic to be discovered and by who?

Back

Nitrous oxide (laughing gas) by Humphry Davy.

Card 3

Front

What were the problems with Nitrous oxide?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What was the second anaesthetic to be discovered, who by and when?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What were the problems with ether?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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