Surgery Revision Cards

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Name 2 inneffective types of pain relief that were given to patients before the mid 19th century
Knocking out, alcohol
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Name 3 types of common surgical operations in the 19th century
Bladder stone, caesarean section, amputation
2 of 90
What was the giggly nickname of the first real suggested anaesthetic?
Laughing Gas
3 of 90
What was the proper name laughing gas?
Nitrous Oxide
4 of 90
Who was it that first discovered that nitrous oxide lessened pain and suggested that it could be used in surgery?
Humphrey Davy
5 of 90
Which dental surgeon was actually the first person to use this new gas in surgery?
Horace Wells
6 of 90
Ether was the next type of anaesthetic used in America by William Morton. It was first used for teeth extraction, but what was removed from a patient in the first proper operation that used ether?
Neck tumour
7 of 90
Can you name at least 3 common problems with ether?
Flammable, difficult to transport, made people sick
8 of 90
Chloroform was discovered as an anaesthetic by which Scottish doctor in 1847?
James Simpson
9 of 90
Which high profile person endorsed the use of chloroform in Britain?
Queen Victoria and Mrs Charles Dickens
10 of 90
Name one patient that died from heart problems caused by a wrong dosage of chloroform
Hannah Greener - 15 years old, toenail removal, overdose
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What was invented by Dr. John Snow that controlled the dosage of chloroform to patients?
Inhilator
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Explain why the number of deaths actually went up after the discovery of anaesthetics?
Black Period - more people died from infection as a result of more surgical exploration
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Which controversial anaesthetic was being experimented with by the late 1800s?
Cocaine
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What was the Black Period of surgery?
More infection due to more surgery
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Which surgeon in Vienna first suggested that infection rates might dip if students washed their hands before delivering children?
Ignaz Semmelweis
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Whose Germ Theory finally made scientific links between microbes and decay?
Louis Pasteur
17 of 90
Who first applied the Germ Theory to surgery?
Joseph Lister
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What was Joseph Lister soaking in bandages during operations?
Carbolic Acid
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Lister started his work against infection in Glasgow. Which city did he then move his ideas to?
London
20 of 90
Explain 2 problems with carbolic acid?
Cracked skin, smelt, long time to prepare operations, costs alot, alot of people thought Lister was mad - they could not actually see the germs
21 of 90
Who first identified the bacteria that caused blood poisoning?
Koch
22 of 90
What else did this person invent for surgical instruments?
Steam Steriliser - sterilised instruments
23 of 90
What is the type of surgery that developed as the use of antiseptics became better understood?
Aseptic
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How did William Halstead help towards the development of aseptic surgery?
Rubber gloves
25 of 90
Name 2 methods of trying to control blood loss in surgery in the mid 1800s?
Cauterising, crows beak clips, clamp, tourniquet, Ambroise Parè (stitches made from silk)
26 of 90
Why did early human to human blood transfusions have a low success rate?
Don't know blood types
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Which scientist first suggested that people had different blood types in 1901?
Karl Landsteiner
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Name all four of these blood types
A, B, AB, O
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Even when blood types had been discovered, blood transfusions had a major problem. What was this?
Blood storage
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During which major event were blood banks first used to store blood for transfusions?
World War 1 - The Battle of Cambrai
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Blood had to be refrigerated when it was stored, but what chemical was FIRST being added to make it last longer?
Sodium Citrate Solution
32 of 90
Which scientists suggested adding glucose to blood to make it store for longer?
Rous and Turner
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At which battle in 1917 was the first mobile blood depot set up?
Battle of Cambrai
34 of 90
Which blood type is safe to transfuse to all other blood types?
O
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Name 2 ways that war puts pressure on surgeons to improve?
More injuries, more infection, new weapons, more demand
36 of 90
What sort of different wounds were being treated in World War 1?
War wounds - facial wounds, amputations
37 of 90
Which New Zealand born doctor pioneered facial reconstruction at this time?
Dr Harold Gillies
38 of 90
Give 1 example of a SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERY that helped improve surgery
Discovery of blood groupings, blood storage, germ theory
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Give 1 example of a TECHNOLOGICAL discovery that helped improve surgery
X-Rays, plastic surgery, prosthetics, inhilator, steam sterliser, carbolic sprayer, rubber gloves, hypodermic needles, silk stictches, catgut stitches, clamps
40 of 90
Who discovered the use of X-Rays in 1895?
Wilhelm Rontgen
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Why did the fantastic use of X-Rays spread so rapidly after its first discovery?
Improved success rates in operations in discovering shrapnell
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Medical journals, newspapers, medical conferences, records and letters could all be catergorised under 1 heading that helped surgery develop. What is this heading?
Communication
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Who was Pirigor?
First battlefield surgeon
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Who was Joseph Lister?
First person to use ether
45 of 90
Who was Humphrey Davy?
First person to discovery nitrous oxide for recreational use
46 of 90
Who was James Simpson?
Discovered chloroform as an anaesthetic
47 of 90
Who was Hannah Greener?
Died from a choloform overdose in an operation to get her toenail removed
48 of 90
Who was Ignaz Semmelweis?
Suggested that infection rates might dip if students washed their hands before delivering children
49 of 90
Who was Louis Pasteur?
Wrote the Germ Theory, linked microbes and decay
50 of 90
Who was Joseph Lister?
Applied the Germ Theory to surgery, and used carbolic acid in operations
51 of 90
Who was Robert Koch?
Identified the bacteria that caused blood poisoning
52 of 90
Who was Ambroise Parè?
Used catgut stitches in operations
53 of 90
Who was Karl Landsteiner?
First suggested that people had different blood types in 1901
54 of 90
Who was Harold Gillies?
Pioneered facial reconstruction in World War 1
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Who was Horace Wells?
A dental surgeon who used nitrous oxide for the first time in surgery
56 of 90
Who were Rous and Turner?
Scientists that discovered that adding glucose to blood made it last longer
57 of 90
What happened in 1844?
Horace Wells first used nitrous oxide as a dental anaesthetic
58 of 90
What happened in 1846?
Ether was first use as an anaesthetic in September of this year
59 of 90
What also happned in 1846?
The first amputatuon to use ether as an anaesthetic by Robery Liston in December of this year
60 of 90
What happened in 1847?
Chloroform was first used as an anaesthetic by James Simpson
61 of 90
What happened in 1853?
Queen Victoria used chloroform in the birth of her eighth child
62 of 90
What happned in the 1850s?
Cocaine was first used as an anaesthetic
63 of 90
What happened in 1884?
It was discovered that cocaine could be used as a local anaesthetic
64 of 90
What happened in 1905?
Novocaine, a version of cocaine that could be used as a local anaesthetic was discovered
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What happened in the 1850s-70s?
The Black Period
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What happened in 1846?
Ignaz Semmelweis discovered that students were passing on infection
67 of 90
What happened in 1861?
Pateur wrote his germ theory
68 of 90
What happened in 1865?
Lister first used bandages soaked in carbolic acid
69 of 90
What happened in 1867?
Lister moved to London
70 of 90
What happened in 1878?
Koch identified the bacteria which caused blood poisoning
71 of 90
What happened in 1990?
William Halstead introduced rubber gloves in a move towards aseptic surgery
72 of 90
What happened in 1901?
Blood types were first suggested by Karl Landsteiner
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What happned in 1902?
A fourth blood type, AB, was added
74 of 90
What happened in 1914-1918?
World War One
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What happened in 1916?
Rous and Turner found that adding glucose to blood made it last longer
76 of 90
What happened in 1917?
The first blood depot was set up just before the Battle of Cambrai
77 of 90
What is an anaesthetic?
An anaesthetic is a drug given to a patient that stops them feeling pain during surgery
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What is a general anaesthetic?
An anaesthetic that affects the whole body and makes the patient unconscious
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What is a local anaesthetic?
An anaesthetic that affects only the part of the body being operated on
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What is opium?
This is a drug made from poppies which was given to patients to help dull pain before anaesthetics
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What is an antiseptic?
A substance that fights germs that cause infection
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What is aseptic?
Free from germs
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What is sepsis?
The name given to infections (e.g. gangrene) caused by germs infecting an open wound
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What is a blood transfusion?
Transferring blood into a patient from another person or animal
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What is cautery?
Using heat to seal a wound
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What is ligature?
A thread tied around a blood vessel to seal it
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What is a tourniquet?
Something tied tightly around a limb to stop the blood flowing into it. This reduces blood loss in an amputation
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What is a patent?
When inventors register their invention with a patent office ("take out a patent"), the patent office stops other people copying their invention for profit
89 of 90
What is a pedicle tube?
A plastic surgery technique used by Harold Gillies in the early 1900s
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Bladder stone, caesarean section, amputation

Back

Name 3 types of common surgical operations in the 19th century

Card 3

Front

Laughing Gas

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Nitrous Oxide

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Humphrey Davy

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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