Superpowers

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Define the term 'superpower'
States or organisations with a dominant position in the international system- their power is primarily economic and military e.g. the USA
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What is an 'emerging superpower'?
A country or organisation that is rapidly growing into a dominant figure in international politics- usually focused on increasing their economic status through the means of resources and exports e.g. BRICs
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What is a 'regional power'?
A country or organisation whose sphere of influence is on a global or continental scale e.g. Japan and South Africa
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What three forms of power do superpowers normally exert?
1. Economic- wealth and advanced development allow them to control markets and influence trade patterns 2. Military- possession of nuclear weapons etc. and monitoring the rest of the world through spy technology 3. Cultural- influencing behaviour
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What is meant by 'hard power'?
Maintaining influence through the use of the military e.g. the USA has military presence on every continent (except Antarctica)- NATO also provides them with allies in Europe
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What is meant by 'intermediate power'?
Usually in terms of trade and aid. Being a member of a trade bloc allows a country to dominate trade patterns, increasing their economic wealth and securing imports and exports- they may also give aid which could have strings attached
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What is meant by 'soft power'?
Spread of culture and ideology through the use of media and propaganda.
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What is a unipolar, bipolar and multipolar world?
Unipolar- one dominant superpower e.g. USA, Bipolar- two dominant powers e.g. USA and the USSR & Multipolar- several powers e.g. maybe the future, BRICs
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Modernisation theory (Rostow's Model)
The economies of countries develop along a pathway of five stages, the first to reach complete development was Britain- this gave it an initial advantage over others to become a superpower.
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Dependency theory
Divides the world into economically developed core and underdeveloped periphery- the capitalist core (superpowers) deliberately keeps the periphery underdeveloped by exploiting cheap resources and labour so that they can manufacture goods to sell
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World Systems theory
Recognises three tiers, core, semi-periphery and periphery and allows for countries to move between stages- providing an explanation for the development of BRICs
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Define 'colonialism'
The acquisition, development and settlement of territory by another country e.g. the British Empire included India, Canada and Ghana etc.
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Define 'neo-colonialism'
The control of the economic and political systems of a country (usually a developing one) by a more powerful country e.g. China;'s move into Africa
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Neo-colonialism can be established through the use of...?
Aid- often with strings attached, debt- in the form of loans that have to be repaid with large amounts of interest, TNCs- exploit resources labour and the market with FDI, terms of trade- favours the superpower (cheap imports, expensive exports)
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Who are the main players in global decision making?
UN- five permanent members of the Security Council, USA, UK, France, Russia and China, WTO- promoting free trade, WB & IMF- helps countries in financial trouble, G8- world's 8 richest countries & trade blocs- established by treaty e.g. EU
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What is 'cultural globalisation'?
Culture of consumerism and capitalism, belief in democracy, belief that technology solves most problems & English as the dominant language
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What promotes 'cultural globalisation'?
Global growth of tourism, widespread trade flows, increased air travel, global media corporations, the internet, growth of global TNCs & reduction of language barriers (logos and international use of English)
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What benefits are the BRICs noticing?
Decrease in the amount of poverty, growth of the middle class and better access to goods and improved services
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What concerns are there about the development of the BRICs?
Increase in demand for energy e.g. fossil fuels and other resources, impacts on the environment e.g. pollution in China and global warming in the Arctic & the uneven distribution of economic growth e.g. rural areas poorer than urban, Lagos and Mumbai
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What challenges are emerging superpowers likely to face?
Ensuring future supplies of energy meet demands, balanced economic base, maintaining the lead in space exploration, curbing outsourcing which depletes jobs, stopping ageing populations and preventing the use of nuclear weapons
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Card 2

Front

What is an 'emerging superpower'?

Back

A country or organisation that is rapidly growing into a dominant figure in international politics- usually focused on increasing their economic status through the means of resources and exports e.g. BRICs

Card 3

Front

What is a 'regional power'?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What three forms of power do superpowers normally exert?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is meant by 'hard power'?

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