Superpower Relations Flashcards

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Who attended the Teheran conference and in what year was it held?
Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt in 1943
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What was agreed on in Teheran?
A second front, war with Japan, UN set up, USSR get some Poland
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What caused strains in Teheran?
Delayed second front, Churchill's distrust, Warsaw uprising
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Who attended the Yalta conference and when was it held?
Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt in Feb 1945
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What was agreed on in Yalta?
War with Japan, divisions of Germany & Berlin, Nazi hunting, free elections of liberated countries, UN, Sphere of influence
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What caused strains in Yalta?
German reparations and USSR influence in Poland
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Who attended the Potsdam conference and when was it held?
Stalin, Attlee and Truman in July 1945
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What was agreed on in Potsdam?
divisions and demilitarisation of Germany, reparations, Nazi trials, UN, Poland's borders
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What caused strains in Potsdam?
extent of reparations, democracy in E.Europe, atomic bomb
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Why did the USSR expand into Eastern Europe?
Percentages deal, memory of WWII, security from Germany, expansionism
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How did Stalin establish control in the satellite states?
Purging the opposition, fixed elections, cominform and comecon
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Key features of comecon and cominform
Cominform (1947) controlled policies and governments, comecon (1949) controlled economies and trading
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Purposes of Marshall Plan
Promote US buisness, ensure capitalism, window to the west
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Causes of Berlin blockade and airlift
Affluent western countries were a window, Bizonia, new currency
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Effects of Berlin blockade and airlift
Propaganda boost for Truman, East/west divisions, NATO and WP
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Key features of Berlin blockade and airlift
Stalin cut off access, allies flew in supplies for 10 months, missiles set up in UK
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Why was NATO set up?
prevent USSR domino, USSR atom bomb, communist china and nkorea
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When did Khrushchev come into power and what were his changes?
1953, destalinisation, peaceful co-existance, secret speech, and warsaw pact
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Causes of Hungarian uprising
memory of stalin in 1945, harsh reign of Rakosi, ruined economy, Gero didnt change anything
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Reasons for USSR invasion of Hungary 1956
Nagy political reforms, damage to WP, pressure from Mao, keep control, USA and UK preoccupied
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Effects of USSR invasion of Hungary
20,000 Hungarians died, Kadar took and ensured USSR influence, mass disillusion with Khrushchev
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Causes of Berlin Wall 1961
window to the west, brain drain, U2 spy-plane, W.Germany joined NATO
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Effects of Berlin Wall
families split apart, brain drain ended, Kennedy seen as weak, E.German economy recovered, US propaganda
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Causes of Bay of Pigs invasion 1961
Castro was leaning towards communism, Cuba had USSR support, US business ejected
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Key features of Bay of Pigs invasion
La Brgada made of Cuba exiles to start revolt, $45 mil cost of training, invasion failed
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Results of Bay of Pigs invasion
kennedy humiliated, USSR more influencial, USA seen as imperialist, Operation mongoose
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Causes of Cuban missile crisis 1962
Bay of Pigs,USA missiles in Italy & Turkey, ballistic missile bases in Cuba
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Key features of Cuban missile crisis
Quarantine around Cuba, armed forced prepped, various demands made
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Effects of Cuban Missile crisis
USSR seen as weak, Khrushchev sacked, USA sell wheat, hotline set up, France left NATO
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Causes of Prague Spring 1968
Harsh rule of Novotny, murder of Masaryk, USSR weakening economy,
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Key features of Prague Spring reforms
multi-party system, less power of secret police, less censorship, more western trade, freedom of speech, workers councils
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Reason for USSR invasion of Czechoslovakia
Brazhnev sacred about WP, uncommunist ideas may spread, pressure from E.Germany and Poland, Western presence in Czech.
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Effects of USSR invasion of Czechoslovakia
few killed, Dubcek arrested and forced to stop, Husark took over, doctrine redefined communism as 1 party, Romania and Albania resisted WP, Chinese criticism
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4 similarities of Hungary and Prague
caused by tyranny and economy, reforms intrdouced by popular liberl leaders, local resistance, Hard line communists established
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4 differences of Hungary and Prague
Czech. wasnt leaving WP, Hungary had US support, more fighting in Hungary, Prague cause WP strains
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Reasons for detente
Cuba, MAD theory, end Vietnam war,
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examples of co-operation in detente
Helsinki agreement, Space link up and Table tennis game 1975
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examples of disarmement in detente
SALT I (72) and II (74), partial test ban (68)
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examples of communication in detente
Policy of linkage (72), Hot line (63), Nixon visit (74)
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Why did Detente end?
Afghanistan, war by proxy in vietnam and Israel, Brezhnev doctrine, Carter's criticisms, troops sent to Cuba
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Causes of USSR invasion of Afghanistan 1979
decrease restricting religion by Taraki cause Mujahideen to declare jihad, Amin seized power and became dependent on USSR support, concern over islamic fundamentalism
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Key features of USSR invasion of Afghanistan
USSR send in 50,000 troops, Amin shot and replaced by Kamal, Afghan troops desert
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Effects of USSR invasion of Afghanistan
Carter doctrine, increase power of CIA, SALT II delayed, 1980 Moscow Olympic boycott
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Why was Reagan and enemy of peace?
Evil empire speech, trillion dollars spent on defence, SDI, NUTS, assisted solidarnsoc
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Key features of the sinatra doctrine
Glasnost (opennedd), Prerestrokia (restructuring), Uskorenie (economic growth), Gorbymania
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Key feature of Geneva 1985
Reagan and Gorabchev agree to increase safety, disagreement on SDI
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Key feature of Reykjavik 1986
agree on arms reduction, disagree on SDI, reagan blamed by gorbachev
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key feature of INF 1987
Elimination of many missiles and agreement to inspect each other’s progress
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key feature of CFE 1987
NATO and WP agree to reduce arms and cooperated over Hussein invading Kuwait
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Key feature of START 1990-91
Over 7 years, arms would be significantly reduced , signed with pens made from scrap missiles
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Key events in Poland 1989
The US supported solidarnosc union won elections and Mazowiecki became PM
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Key events in Bulgaria 1990
democratic elections held, the communist party won
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Key events in Hungary 1990
alliance of anti-communist groups formed the Democratic Forum and won elections
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Key events in Romania 1990
The secret police and president are overthrown by a rebellion, NSF win elections
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Key events in Czechoslovakia 1989
a huge demonstration leading to the resignation of the government
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Key events in E.Germany 1989
Protests in E.Berlin, berlin wall dismantled, New Germany formed following year and joined NATO
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Key events in USSR 1991
Estonia, Latvia, and LIthuania declared indpendent, armed rebellion against Gorbachev, Russian Socialist Republic defeated coup
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Key features of Helsinki agreements 1975
35 countries agree on borders, cultural & trade links, and human rights
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US presidents between the years 1945-1990
Roosevelt, Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon, Ford, Carter, Reagan, Bush
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USSR leaders between the years 1945-1990
Stalin, Malenkov, Khrushchev, Brezhnev, Andropov, Cherenko, Gorbachev
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What was agreed on in Teheran?

Back

A second front, war with Japan, UN set up, USSR get some Poland

Card 3

Front

What caused strains in Teheran?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Who attended the Yalta conference and when was it held?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What was agreed on in Yalta?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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