Succession Crisis and the Glorious Revolution 1678-89

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When was the exclusion crisis?
1678-85
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What was the exclusion crisis?
Th attempt of certain MPs to remove James from the line of succession due to fears of Catholicism and absolutism
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How did the Earl of Shaftsbury play a leading role in th exclusion of James?
He urged Charkes to divorce Catherine of Braganza in order to marry again and have a legitimate child, and he urged Charles to annul the marriage between James and the catholic princess Mary
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How was Shaftsbury punished?
Dismissed as Lord Chancellor, and removed from the privy council
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What did the exclusion crisis see the emergence of?
Tories and the Whigs
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What does Scott say about how the exclusion crisis originated?
Focuses on the role of France and the relationship England had with them promoting absolutism and Catholicism
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What was the Popish plot? When was it?
A document produced which claimed that Jesuits had planned the assassination of Charles II so that James could be put on the throne p- supported by an invasion from France and Ireland
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Who was involved in the Popish Plot?
Titus Oates, Israel Tonge, Charles II, James, Edward Coleman and Danby
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Why was the popish plot significant?
It heightened the fears of absolutism and Catholicism in England
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What key events resulted in the development of anti-Catholicism?
Gunpowder plot 1605, Bloody Mary 1553-8, The Spanish War 1588, the Thirty Years War 1618-48 & John Foxe's book of martyrs
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What did the Second Test Act of 1678 mean?
Catholics were excluded from parliament, with an exception of James & that Charles would Prosecute the penal laws with more rigour
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Why was there an attack on Danby?
Parliament became aware that Danby knew of Charles continuing links with Fracne (Louis XIV) even though he secured money from parliament in exchange of ending elevations with France
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Why was Danby not impeached?
Charles wanted to cover his own tracks and therefore dismissed Danby under the act of attainder so that he wouldn't have to be taken to trial, and that Charles' role wouldn't have to be found out
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When Charles dismissed Lauderdale from Scotland, who did he replace him with?
Duke of York, James
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What did James achieve within his time in Scotland 1679-82?
He strengthened the position of the crown and built up a support base which proved vital for when he succeeded his brother
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Why did James' actions in Scotland cause more concerns and fear over his reign?
Many believed that he would try to become an absolutist monarch
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Why did people become fearful of Ireland?
Majority Catholic and they feared an Irish and French invasion- promoted by Shaftsbury although the substance of this might not be true
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What were the first actions of the first Exclusion Parliament in 1679?
Secure freedom and rights in the event of Catholic succession, granted £200,000 to disband the army and secured a Habeas Cropus
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What is a Habeas Corpus?
A writ to bring a person before a court or a judge to ensure they are legally held prisoner
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What were the initial aims of the first exclusion parliament?
To protect the country in light of a catholic heir, not to exclude James from the throne
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What division held majority in the 1st exclusion parliament?
Country aka Whigs
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What limitations would be set on a Catholic king?
No crown patronage, parliament controlled the appointment of civil, legal and military offices
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How did parliament vote on the Exclusion Bill 1678?
Passed 207/128 out of 509- meant that Charles could do some persuading, Charles suspended parliament
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What was the Scottish Rising at Bothwell Bridge?
Scottish Covenanters killed an archbishop and called for armed defence of protestantarianism
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How was the Scottish Rising defeated?
It wasn't a unified movement and therefore stopped by Charles' eldest illegitimate son the Duke of Monmout, the rising had little support from the Scottish elite
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What were the negative aspects of Monmouth's victory over Bothwell Bridge for Charles?
Duke of Monmouth had been working with Shaftsbury to exclude James from the throne, there was a possibility that the Duke of Monmouth would take the throne- popular because he was Protestant
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Who was sent to Scotland as Charles' representative?
James, Duke of York
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How did Charles attempt to appease Shaftsbury, Halifax and his other key opponents on the matter of exclusion?
Appointed them to the Privy council, although it proved worthless- they were all replaced with younger men
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What did the exclusion pamphlets include?
Justifications for exclusion, consequences of having a Catholic king and personal attacks on James
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How did the Tories justify absolutism?
The king is the natural ruler, he should therefore be absolutist as long as he respects the wishes of his subjects
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How did the Tory propaganda influence moderates?
Made them support Charles
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Was the third exclusion bill passed?
Yes in the House of Commons, no in the House of Lords
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How did parliament respond to the decline of the exclusion bill?
Used finance against Charles- offered £600,000 for exclusion and said that they wouldn't vote any more money until Charles agreed to exclusion, Charles dissolved parliament and recalled on in Oxford a loyalist are
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How did Charles raise finances?
France gave him £40,000 immediately and gave him £115,000 annually for 3 years if he promised not to call another parliament- Charles also had to break his alliance with the Spanish
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What did Charles offer the Oxford parliament?
William and Mary to be regents for James
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Did parliament accept?
No they called for another exclusion bill so Charles dissolved parliament- meaning that he defeated exclusion
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Why did the Whig argument fail to implement exclusion?
Exclusion was refused by the Lords and the King and many were influenced by the Tory propaganda of "41 is here again"
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How did Scotland help the failure of the exclusion crisi?
They supported James and declared that no matter his religion if he was the next in line when Charles died he would take the thron- this meant that even if exclusion happened in England James would still be King of Scotland
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How did Charles' financial situation cause the failure of the exclusion crisis?
Charles secured enough money from France to be able to dissolve parliament
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What did the support of the Lords mean?
The exclusion bills would never be passed because Charles could rely on the support of the House of Lords
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Why were there huge amounts of public support?
Many people agreed with the ideas of the Tories, their ability to say that they had many supporters encouraged more supporters and demonstrations
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What did the decline of William and Mary as regents show the Whigs to be?
Extremely radical thus decreasing their support
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Why else were the exclusion bills seen as being radical?
They called for the death of James and the label of him being a traitor, it was also deemed unnecessary and unlawful to intervene with divine succession of the crown
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Why did the Whigs face a problem of naming a successor?
Mary was married to the Dutch William and the Duke of Monmouth was seen as mentally weak
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How did Harris (2005) explain the repression used by Charles throughout the exclusion crisis?
Media exploitation to convince moderates to pledge their allegiance to the crown
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Was exclusion needed?
Not really, Charles was only 3 years older than James so it was likely that he would die before Charles anyway or have a very short reign- the throne would then be passed down to James' Protestant daughters
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Wha did Finlayson (2001) say about the exclusion crisis?
Fear of Catholicism and absolutism was at the heart of the exclusion crisis, which was also a central theme to the civil war in 1642- therefore restoration did not resolve any of the problems from the civil war times
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What did Harris (2005) suggest was the cause of the exclusion crisis?
Multi-Kingdom dimension- wasn't a virus about whether the Duke of York should inherit the throne but instead the failure of the restoration and the style of Charles' government in all three kingdoms
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What did Hutton say about the contribution of Scotland and Ireland to the exclusion crisis?
Their support of the crown was due to the defeat they felt after they opposed it last time
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What were the tensions of the exclusion crisis highlighted by Hutton?
Division between 'court' and 'country', dissenters and the church, multi-Kingdom dimension & between the executive and the legislature
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What political insecurities did Hutton say added to these tensions?
Fear of a repetition of the 1640s, external threats e.g. France and the Dutch, fall in agricultural prices made the political elite more reliant on office & the numbers of dissenters
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What external threats were there?
France, multi-Kingdom dimension, James as a Catholic
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What did Miller (2000) say about the exclusion crisis?
Similarities to 1642 e.g. Dust rust of the monarchy and popish conspiracies
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What was the Rye House Plot 1683?
Attempt by firmer cromwellians to kill both Charles and James at Rye House
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How did Charles secure power for James before his death?
Used the royal prerogative- issued new charters & removed Whigs from local governments making the Tories the majority, also used persecution to remove opponents from court e.g. Shaftsbury imprisoned & punishment of dissenters became harsher
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How did Hutton describe Charles' use of persecution?
The most savage persecutor of all English monarchs (potential link to Charles' persecutions after the reformation
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How did Hutton describe Charles' power in the 1680s?
As paralysed, without parliament Charles couldn't raise finance for war or legislate- paralysed as a military power and legislature power
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What was the exclusion crisis?

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Th attempt of certain MPs to remove James from the line of succession due to fears of Catholicism and absolutism

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How did the Earl of Shaftsbury play a leading role in th exclusion of James?

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How was Shaftsbury punished?

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What did the exclusion crisis see the emergence of?

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