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What are the characteristics of pioneer species?
Short lived, opportunistic, grow rapidly, unstable.
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Examples of pioneer species
Lichens, algae, moss.
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What are the characterisitics of climax species?
Better competitors, long lived, dominant species, stable.
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Examples of climax species
Larger plants, woodland.
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What is primary succession?
When plants grow where no plants have grown before.
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What is secondary succession?
Plants grow where there has been a previous population that were destroyed e.g. in a fire.
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What is the definition of succession?
Predictable and gradual change in plant and animal communities at a site over time, leading to the development of a climax state.
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What are the first and last species to colonise called?
The first species to colonise are called pioneer species and the last are climax species.
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What happens once the climax state has been reached?
Succession will not go any further, but there will still be changes to the environment.
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What is each next set of colonisers known as?
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What will each new community be?
Better adapted than the last to their environment.
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Why are no plants present on bare rock?
Because it is exposed and the heat is reflected and absorbed by the rock.
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What is an example of succession?
Psammosere (sand dune succession).
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What are the pioneer species in sand dune succession?
Sea rocket as they are able to tolerate the high salt levels and unstable sand.
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What are the climax species in sand dune succession?
Woodland, as the sand is more stable, there are increased humus levels and more water.
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Describe succession from bare ground
No plant competition for light, space, water or nutrients. Soil is mobile and liable to loss/erosion. Extreme surface microclimate as bare soil absorbs and reflects more heat. Drier environment as no plant cover, lower nutrient/humus levels in soil.
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Describe succession 2 years later
Intense competition for space,light,water and nutrients.Soil bound by roots and plant cover.Plants provide ground insulation from temperature - variety of microclimates. Plant cover+increasing humus levels retain water,nutrient levels increased.
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Card 2


Examples of pioneer species


Lichens, algae, moss.

Card 3


What are the characterisitics of climax species?


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Card 4


Examples of climax species


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Card 5


What is primary succession?


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