Success and Failure of Dieting

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Who suggested 5 factors which could lead to body dissatisfaction?
Ogden (2007)
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What 5 factors did Ogden suggest could lead to body dissatisfaction?
Media, family, ethnicity, social class, peers
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Who suggested restraint theory as an explanation of diet failure?
Herman & Mack (1975)
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What does restraint theory as an explanation of diet failure suggest?
Attempting not to eat increases the probability of overeating
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Who suggested the Boundary Model?
Herman & Polivy (1984)
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What does the Boundary Model suggest?
Unrestrained eaters: eat meals until satiated & if pre-load will eat less meal & stop when satiated, restrained eaters = eat meals until cognitive boundary & if pre-load experience Behavioural Disinhibition & eat beyond satiation
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What is an issue with using Behavioural Disinhibition to explain overeating due to restraint?
It is not explained what happens cognitively to make an individual think in this maladaptive way
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Who carried out research involving ice cream & milkshake?
Herman & Mack (1975)
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What were the conditions in Herman & Mack's research?
45 female students split into restrained & unrestrained eaters, group 1: no preload, group 2: 1 milkshake preload, group 3: 2 milkshake preload
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What were the results of Herman & Mack's research?
Restrained eaters from group 2 & 3 ate more ice cream than group 1, a positive correlation found between amount of ice cream eaten after 2 preloads & a high restraint score
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What are 4 methodological issues of Herman & Mack's research?
Questionnaire given post hoc = social desirability, correlational data = causation & possible 3rd variable, no account for individual taste/food preferences = invalid results, small group sizes of student = significant anomalies & unrepresentative
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What does restraint theory suggest is the issue with restraint diets being recommended as treatment for obesity?
Sufferers of obesity on restraint diets are likely to overeat & fail
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How does restraint theory not account for anorexia?
Sufferers of anorexia have strict cognitive boundaries but do not overeat
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How does restraint theory avoid reductionism?
Consideration of physiological factors of hunger & society as well as psychological factors of the cognitive boundary & behavioural disinhibition
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Who suggested that when an individual denies themselves something & attempts to suppress their thoughts about it, they will think about it more?
Wegner (1994)
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Who carried out research involving denial & a white bear?
Wegner (1987)
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What were the conditions of Wegner's research?
Group 1: told not to verbalise their stream of thought for 5 mins & not think of a white bear, then told to try to think of a white bear, group 2: told from beginning to think of a white bear
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What were the results of Wegner's research?
Group 1: thought of a white bear more than once per minute, then even more, group 2: no thoughts of a white bear for first 5 minutes, then rebounded
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Who carried out research involving denial & rebounding thoughts of food?
Soetens (2006)
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What were the results of Soetens' research?
Restrained eaters who overeat use more thought suppression compared to restrained who don't overheat & unrestrained, if they successfully suppressed thoughts of food during the task they often rebounded after & thought of the food even more
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Who carried out research involving denial of Hershey's Kisses?
Stirling (2004)
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What were the results of Stirling's research?
Both restrained & unrestrained eaters reported craving of the chocolate when told not to eat it but carry it with them for 24 hours, only restrained eaters ate any of the chocolate, all ate twice as much when told they could compared to a control
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What is the definition of neophilia?
The liking of novelty
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Who carried out research involving jellybean flavours?
Redden (2008)
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What were the results of Redden's research?
Of 135 participants eating 22 fruit flavoured jellybeans, those given specific flavour labels became less satiated & kept enjoying the jellybeans for longer than those given 'jellybean' label
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What is a methodological issue with Redden's research?
Individual differences = flavour preferences of jellybeans/jellybeans in general
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What are 5 most common beliefs of healthy eating programmes?
No denial, physical exercise, group supports, self monitoring, avoid restraint
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Who carried out research involving healthy eating programmes?
Higgins & Gray (1999)
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What were the results of Higgins & Gray's research?
Of 82 women aged 24-67 with an average BMI of 31.4, after 6 weeks of 2 hour long sessions presenting Freedom From Dieting information about health/diets, positive correlation between natural eating & weightless
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Who suggested that some cultures find it more difficult to diet because of a natural inclination for obesity?
Park (2001)
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What is the issue with most research being Eurocentric?
Success of dieting may differ from Europe & the rest of the world due to factors such as genetic variation & therefore results from Eurocentric research can't be validly applied to the rest of the world
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What is the issue with the participants in most research?
Mostly women volunteer to take part in research but men are more commonly attempting diets so results can't be applied to their specific dietary struggles
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How could research showing how ineffective diets are lead to determinism from overweight people?
Research into dieting mostly proves diets fails for reasons such as denial & restraint which could lead some people to believe that they're weight issues are purely biological which reduces the likelihood of attempting to change it
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What 5 factors did Ogden suggest could lead to body dissatisfaction?

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Media, family, ethnicity, social class, peers

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Who suggested restraint theory as an explanation of diet failure?

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What does restraint theory as an explanation of diet failure suggest?

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Who suggested the Boundary Model?

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