Subcultures as related to social class/gender/ethnicity

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Hall & Jefferson (1976)
Teddy boys wore bootlace ties as characters in western films that had to live off their wits were an inspiration to them and Edwardian dandy jackets to show contempt to the class system as they were popular w the upper middle class
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Fyvel (1961)
Teddy boys were youths excluded from the expansion of employment after WWII - they lost out in the education system and missed out on affluence so they had nowhere to go
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John Clarke
Skinhead culture exaggerated the working class identity by being macho, agressive and racist and wearing maual workers clothes (e.g. braces, boots, rolled up jeans) as their working class identity was under threat due to economic conditions
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Phil Cohen (1972)
Skinheads wore exaggerated working-class clothes to represent a caricature and reassertion of solid working class toughness as their identity was under threat due to decline in working class communties and dock work and immigration from asian places
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Dick Hebdige
Mods were working class but more affluent, so used their money to create a style resistant to the middle class showing they could be smart and coool with Italian suits and scooters
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Dick Hebdige (1979)
Punks use bricolage in resistance to dominant fashion in the media. The only thing punks have in common is that they reject anything orderly/restrained/sacred. They have political elements. 'Incorporation' the media incorporated styles into mainstrea
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Thornton (1995)
Girls had less disposable income and earned less so the teenage market was dominated by boys as girls put their energy into doing well at school. They accept their lack of subcultural capital (which is looked down on)
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Thornton (1995)
Acid house/rave culture lost its underground and hip status by becoming legal and the scene was characterised by 'techno traceys' who were seen as less important and mainstream (feminised)
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McRobbie (1991)
Girls became more active in relation to consumer culture - girls critiqued or mocked magazines rather than passively accepeting them when they started targeting girls
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McRobbie (1994)
'Black ragga girls' danced sexually, ridiculing male sexism. They challenged the message of sexist lyrics, reclaimed their sexuality and used it to assert their own identities
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Reddington (2003)
Female members of the punk subculture have been influential e.g. Vivienne Westwood. Punk was a form of resistance for women who didn't want to get married/go to college. Female performers were not taken as seriously/judged on physical appearance
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Bennett (1999)
Neo-tribes are less gendered and loosen the boundaries within and between contemporary youth subcultures so girls have more space to develop their own identities
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Hebdige (1979)
British youth subultures are a response to black immigrant presence in the UK e.g. mods imitated cool west indian styles and skinheads were racist and resistant to immigration but adopted fashion and music from them
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Hebdige (1979)
'Rude boys' or 'Rudies' - subculture based on looking cool, dealing cannabis and pimping. Also brought minor offending to the UK
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Sivanandan (1981)
Black youth subcultures emerged as a result of experiences of 2nd gen black young people who were socially and economically marginalised by the white society and a continuation of colonial struggle.They're driven by opposition to capitalism & whites
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Hall et al (1978)
Black youth subcultures were represented in the media as threatening and criminal e.g. black mean were linked in the media to street crime
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Hebdige (1976)
Rastafarianism and reggae culture are forms of resistance to white culture and racism. Rastafarianism as a political and spiritual movement attracted Carribean migrants as it offered a positive identity and opposition to racism
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Johal (1998)
Brasians adopted a hyper-ethnic style - exaggerated form of parent culture e.g. watching hindi films and listening to indian music as this provided empowerment through difference however issues e.g religion and diet created code switching
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Mercer (1987)
Interpretations of hair styling in black culture were simplistic (e.g. braids/afros emphasising black identity and straight black hair being cultural assimilation) however these are all forms of hybridity
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Nayak (2003)
'White wannabes' - working class white males who adopt the style and language of black vulture e.g. listen to rap music, wear bling and dress stereotypically black. For example Ali G
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Vale & Juno (1989)
Body modification undertaken by modern primitives is a reaction to the sense of powerlessness created by living in a fast changing world, through which some sense of power and control can be regained
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Hutnyk (2000)
Western subcultures may strip meaning away from cultural symbols and use them in superficial ways. Cultural exchange should be a two way process, which it isn't in reality.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Teddy boys were youths excluded from the expansion of employment after WWII - they lost out in the education system and missed out on affluence so they had nowhere to go

Back

Fyvel (1961)

Card 3

Front

Skinhead culture exaggerated the working class identity by being macho, agressive and racist and wearing maual workers clothes (e.g. braces, boots, rolled up jeans) as their working class identity was under threat due to economic conditions

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Skinheads wore exaggerated working-class clothes to represent a caricature and reassertion of solid working class toughness as their identity was under threat due to decline in working class communties and dock work and immigration from asian places

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Mods were working class but more affluent, so used their money to create a style resistant to the middle class showing they could be smart and coool with Italian suits and scooters

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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