Subcultural strain theories: Cloward and Ohlin

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In what ways do Cloward and Ohlin agree with Merton and Cohen?
They agree that working class youths are denied legitimate opportunities to achieve material success and that their deviance stems from the way they respond to this situation.
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It what ways do they (like Cohen) criticise Merton?
Not everyone in the situation of strain resort to innovation (utilitarian crime).
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Why are there different responses from different subcultures?
Unequal access to legitimate/illegitimate oppourtunity structures.
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For example:
There is an unequal oppourtunity structures between different deliquent subcultures to become a successful safecracker as the art of safe-cracking requires being apprenticed/trained/practiced.
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Where did they draw on ideas from?
The crime and deviance strudy of the Chicago School
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What are the names of the 3 theories relevant to his theory of different responses of different deliquent subcultures?
1. Cultural transmission theory 2. Differential association theory 3.Social disorgansation theory
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Summarise Cultural transmission theory
Some neighbourhoods develop a criminal tradition or culture that is transmitted from generation to generation whilst other neighbourhoods remain relatively crime-free over the same period.
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Summarise differential association theory
Deviance was behaviour learned through social interaction with others who are deviant. (This includes learning both criminal values and skills from others).
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Summarise disorganisation theory
Deviance is a product of social disorganisation. Changes (such as migration) create instability, disrupting family and commmunity structures which means that they are unable to exercise social control over individuals.
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What 3 different types of deviant subcultures result from different illegitimate oppourtunites for young people to learn criminal skills and develop criminal careers?
1.Criminal subcultures 2.Conflict subcultures 3.Retreatist subcultures
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What are criminal subcultures?
Subcultures that only arise in neighbourhoods where there is a longstanding and stable local adult crime.
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What kind of oppourtunities are there to achieve illegitimately in criminal subcultures?
There is good access to oppourtunities that would enable peopel to become successful criminal
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How are these oppourtunities accessed?
Due to the culture and hierarchy of established crime, young people can associate with professional, adult criminals to learn the skills to become professional criminals themselves.
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What are conflict subcultures?
Subcultures that arise in neighbourhood of high levels of disorganisation which prevents a stable network of professional crime from developing.
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What oppourtunities do they offer to become a successful criminal?
Very few as due to the absence of stable network of professional criminals, the only oppourtunities lie within loosely organised gangs.
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What type of crime normally arises from conflict subcultures?
Frustration crimes (such as violence).
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Why are there a lot of frustration crimes commited by people who live in conflict subcultures?
There are very little oppourtunities to achieve both legitimately/illegitimately so violent acts and alternative sources of status (such as turf wars) provides a release for young people's frustration.
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Conflict subculture are the closest to that described by...
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What are retreatist subcultures?
A subculture that is not involved in both the illegitimate/legitimate oppourtunity structures.
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Who occupies these retreatist subcultures?
'Double failures,' (those who fail in both the legitimate and illegitimatr opourtunity structures)
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Why do retreatist subcultures exist?
When, in certain neighbourhoods, there is a lack of oppourtunities to achieve both legitimately and illegitimately, people retreat from both structures altogether.
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According to Cloward and Ohlin, what are retreatist subcultures often based on?
Illegal drug use.
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Card 2


It what ways do they (like Cohen) criticise Merton?


Not everyone in the situation of strain resort to innovation (utilitarian crime).

Card 3


Why are there different responses from different subcultures?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


For example:


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Where did they draw on ideas from?


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