Studying Society

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What is a longitudinal study?
Interview/survey carried out over period of time (usually every 7 years) with follow up surveys
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What are the advantages of longitudinal studies?
Allows sociologists to examine sociological changes over time. Individuals behavior and daily life is able to be identified
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What are the disadvantages of longitudinal studies?
Can be relatively expensive. Possible problems maintaining candidate in investigation (eg. May not want to take part any longer or could have moved
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Are longitudinal studies qualitative or quantitative?
Qualitative
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What is non-participant observation?
Not taking part in group activities but observing them
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What are the advantages of non-participant observations?
More objective than participant observation- less influence towards participants feelings
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What are the limitations of non-participant observations?
Participant may change behavior if know they're being observed. Observer less likely to realize the situation the participant is in
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Stratified random sampling
Sociologists split population into subgroups and select a sample from there. (eg. sample to reflect the age and gender characteristics of population) Disadvantage: More complex
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Systematic Sampling
Taking 'nth' term for sampling (eg. 10th term for every register)
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Simple random sampling
Each member of population has equal chance of being selected (eg. selected by computer randomly) Advantage: highly representative if all participate
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Snowball sampling
Used where no sampling frame- randomly selects member of population and gradually gains his/her confidence in order to sample them--- Advantage: locate people in hidden locations to gather information
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Quota sampling
Market researchers use this to interview people on the street- has to interview exact number of people
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Purposive/ Representative Sampling
Selected according to known characteristic
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Probability sampling
Snowball, Quota & Purposive
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Non-probability sampling
Stratified Random, Systematic, Simple Random
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What is a questionnaire?
List of preset standardized questions so each participant has same questions
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What are the advantages of a questionnaire?
Practical and a large amount of information can be carried out
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What are the disadvantages of a questionnaire?
May be inadequate to understand some forms of information. The participant may leave the questionnaire and not want to participate
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What is a postal questionnaire?
Self completed that are sent to the house of the participant through post
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What is a hand delivered questionnaire?
Researcher delivers and picks up the questionnaire
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What is a formal/structured questionnaire?
Interviewer reads out questions and respondent participates- like a Q&A
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What is a closed question?
Require yes or no answer- easily collected information
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What is an open question?
Provide in depth answer from respondent- useful for qualitative data
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What type of research is a questionnaire?
Quantitative as graphs and numerical data is formed from results
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What is a group interview?
Small group discussions that can be used in conjunction with other research methods
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What type of research method is a group interview?
Qualitative because hear different opinions but quantitative as there are many participants
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What are the advantages of group interviews?
Researcher gains variety of opinions, people feel more comfortable as other people there
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What are the disadvantages of group interviews?
Both others being there it could be a biased view, researchers cant garentee confidentiality in a big group
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What is an unstructured interview?
Like a casual conversation, no two interviews would be identical
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What are the advantages of an a unstructured interview?
More flexible, Interviewer can ask more questions
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What are the disadvantages of an unstructured interview?
Require skilled interviewer that needs to keep flowing conversation
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What is participant observation?
A qualitative method in that the researcher takes part in the observation
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What is covert participant observation?
Participating without informing members of social group that they are under observation
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Advantages of covert observation
Researcher able to study group in natural surroundings without the participants changing in behavioir
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Disadvantages of covert observation
It may be difficult to gain trust as you are an outset. may also result in researcher becoming emotionally attached.
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What is overt participant observation?
Researchers given permission and informs members of social group they are being observed
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Advantages of overt participation
Data is openly recorded
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Disadvantages of overt participation
Behavior of participant may alter due to presence of researcher
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What are primary sources of data?
Collected first hand by using research methods (surveys or questionnaires)
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What are secondary sources of data?
Sources of information already collected/generated by others (mass media)
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Card 2

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What are the advantages of longitudinal studies?

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Allows sociologists to examine sociological changes over time. Individuals behavior and daily life is able to be identified

Card 3

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What are the disadvantages of longitudinal studies?

Back

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Card 4

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Are longitudinal studies qualitative or quantitative?

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Card 5

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What is non-participant observation?

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