AQA A2 Biology: 8.1 Studying Inheritance Definitions

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Genotype
The genetic composition of an organism
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Phenotype
The characteristics of an organism, often visible, resulting from both its genotype and the effects of the environment
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Allele
One form of a gene e.g. the gene for the shape of the pea seeds has two alleles one round and one wrinkles
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Gamete
Reproductive cell that fuses with another gamete during fertilisation
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Gene
Length of DNA on a chromosome normally coding for a particular polypeptide
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Nucleotide
Complex chemicals made up of organic base, a sugar and a phosphate. They are the basic units of which the nucleic acids DNA and RNA are made
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Homologous Chromosomes
A pair of chromosomes that have the same gene loci and therefore determine the same feature. They are not necessarily identical however as individual alleles of the same genes may vary. The chromosomes are capable of pairing in meiosis
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Homozygous
Condition in which the alleles of a particular gene are identical
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Heterozygous
Condition in which the alleles of a particular gene are different
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Dominant Allele
An allele that is always expressed in the phenotype of an organism
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Recessive Allele
The condition in which the effect of an allele is apparent in the phenotype of a diploid organism only in the presence of another identical allele
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Haploid
Cells that only contain a single copy of each chromosome
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Diploid
Cells in which the nucleus contains two sets of chromosomes
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Co-dominance
Condition in which both alleles for one gene in a heterozygous organism contribute to the phenotype
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Mutation
A change in the sequence of bases in the DNA
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Multiple Alleles
A gene which has more than two possible alleles
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The characteristics of an organism, often visible, resulting from both its genotype and the effects of the environment

Back

Phenotype

Card 3

Front

One form of a gene e.g. the gene for the shape of the pea seeds has two alleles one round and one wrinkles

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Reproductive cell that fuses with another gamete during fertilisation

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Length of DNA on a chromosome normally coding for a particular polypeptide

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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