Studying genomes, DNA replication and Genetic Engineering Definitions

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1. Outline the process involved in genetically engineering golden rice

  • 1) phytoene synthase (from daffodil) and Crt 1 enzyme (soil bacteria) are inserted into the rice, near the specific promoter sequence that switches on the genes associated with endosperm development - genes expressed as endosperm (bit you eat) grows
  • 1) improving a feature of the recipient cell eg resistant crops, growth controlling gene in farms 2) engineering organisms to synthesise useful products eg insulin, golden rice
  • The process of growing bacteria on agar, then transferring a replica of that growth to plates containing growth inhibitors or promoters, analysis of growth patterns gives information about genetic properties of growing bacteria
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2. Somatic cell gene therapy involves

  • Placing of the gene in adult differentiated cells, examples include the placing of CFTR genes into the respiratory system cells of individuals with cystic fibrosis
  • 1) improving a feature of the recipient cell eg resistant crops, growth controlling gene in farms 2) engineering organisms to synthesise useful products eg insulin, golden rice
  • Placing the gene into embryonic cell, this technique is not currently legal and is deemed unethical

3. A vector can be

  • Formed when DNA is cut using restriction enzymes, it is a short run of unpaired exposed bases seen at the end of the cut section, complimentary bases can anneal together as part of the process of recombining DNA fragments
  • Bacterial plasmid, virus, yeast cell chromosomes
  • It contains DNA that has been added to its cells as a result of genetic engineering

4. Explain how plasmids may be taken up by bacterial cells in order to produce a transgenic microorganism that expresses a desired gene

  • 1) isolated gene and plasmid cut with same restric-enzyme 2) gene and plasmid mixed with ligase 3) some plasmids combine forming recombinant plasmid 4) plasmid mixed with bacteria, calcium salt and heat shock 5) some transgenic bacteria
  • Formed when DNA is cut using restriction enzymes, it is a short run of unpaired exposed bases seen at the end of the cut section, complimentary bases can anneal together as part of the process of recombining DNA fragments
  • 1) improving a feature of the recipient cell eg resistant crops, growth controlling gene in farms 2) engineering organisms to synthesise useful products eg insulin, golden rice

5. Primers are

  • 1) pimer joins at 3' end 2) DNA polymerase attatches and adds free nucleotides 3) if a modified nucleotide added, polymerase thrown off 4) as reaction proceeds many molecules are made varying in size in each case the final nucleotide is marked
  • Short, single stranded sequences of DNA around 10-20 bases in length, they are needed in sequencing reactions and polymerase chain reactions to bind to a section of DNA as DNA polymerase can't bind directly to single stranded DNA fragments
  • 4) BACs taken and cultured, DNA extracted, restriction enzymes cut into smaller fragments 5) fragments sent through electrophoresis 5) sequenced using automated process 6) computers compare overlapping regions to reassemble whole BAC sequence
  • 3) gel immersed in a buffer solution and electric current passed through for 2 hours 4) short lengths move faster than long lengths therefore move further 5) position of fragments can be shown with a dye or radioactive marker

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