Studying genomes, DNA replication and Genetic Engineering Definitions

HideShow resource information

1. Outline the process involved in genetically engineering golden rice

  • The process of growing bacteria on agar, then transferring a replica of that growth to plates containing growth inhibitors or promoters, analysis of growth patterns gives information about genetic properties of growing bacteria
  • 1) phytoene synthase (from daffodil) and Crt 1 enzyme (soil bacteria) are inserted into the rice, near the specific promoter sequence that switches on the genes associated with endosperm development - genes expressed as endosperm (bit you eat) grows
  • 1) improving a feature of the recipient cell eg resistant crops, growth controlling gene in farms 2) engineering organisms to synthesise useful products eg insulin, golden rice
1 of 20

Other questions in this quiz

2. Outline the process involved in genetic engineering of bacteria to produce insulin

  • 1) mRNA found (centrifuge), reverse transcriptase 2) DNA polymerase and DNA nucleotides added 3) copied DNA built on 4) unpaired nucleotides added at each end (complimentary sticky) 5) plasmid, DNA, ligase mixed, recombinant plasmid 6) bacteria, agar
  • 1) improving a feature of the recipient cell eg resistant crops, growth controlling gene in farms 2) engineering organisms to synthesise useful products eg insulin, golden rice

3. Why do people want to genetically engineer organisms

  • 1) improving a feature of the recipient cell eg resistant crops, growth controlling gene in farms 2) engineering organisms to synthesise useful products eg insulin, golden rice
  • Formed when DNA is cut using restriction enzymes, it is a short run of unpaired exposed bases seen at the end of the cut section, complimentary bases can anneal together as part of the process of recombining DNA fragments
  • 1) improving a feature of the recipient cell eg resistant crops, growth controlling gene in farms 2) engineering organisms to synthesise useful products eg insulin, golden rice

4. Primers are

  • 3) gel immersed in a buffer solution and electric current passed through for 2 hours 4) short lengths move faster than long lengths therefore move further 5) position of fragments can be shown with a dye or radioactive marker
  • Short, single stranded sequences of DNA around 10-20 bases in length, they are needed in sequencing reactions and polymerase chain reactions to bind to a section of DNA as DNA polymerase can't bind directly to single stranded DNA fragments
  • 1) pimer joins at 3' end 2) DNA polymerase attatches and adds free nucleotides 3) if a modified nucleotide added, polymerase thrown off 4) as reaction proceeds many molecules are made varying in size in each case the final nucleotide is marked
  • 4) BACs taken and cultured, DNA extracted, restriction enzymes cut into smaller fragments 5) fragments sent through electrophoresis 5) sequenced using automated process 6) computers compare overlapping regions to reassemble whole BAC sequence

5. Sections of DNA containing desired genes can be extracted from a donor organism using restriction enzymes:

  • 1) the required gene is obtained 2) a copy of the gene is placed (packed and stabalised) in a vector 3) the vector carries the gene to the recipient cell 4) the recipient expresses the gene through protein synthesis
  • It contains DNA that has been added to its cells as a result of genetic engineering
  • 1) particular r enzyme will cut (hydrolyse) DNA at a specific base sequence called a restriction site 2) sticky end 3) DNA ligase used to condense fragments together (same restriction enzyme must be used in order for complimentary sticky ends)
  • 3) gel immersed in a buffer solution and electric current passed through for 2 hours 4) short lengths move faster than long lengths therefore move further 5) position of fragments can be shown with a dye or radioactive marker

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all DNA, genetics and evolution resources »