Studying genomes, DNA replication and Genetic Engineering Definitions

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1. The basic prodedure for electrophoresis is 1) DNA samples treated with restriction enzymes to split into fragments 2) placed in wells cut into the negative electrode end of gel

  • 3) gel immersed in a buffer solution and electric current passed through for 2 hours 4) short lengths move faster than long lengths therefore move further 5) position of fragments can be shown with a dye or radioactive marker
  • 1) pimer joins at 3' end 2) DNA polymerase attatches and adds free nucleotides 3) if a modified nucleotide added, polymerase thrown off 4) as reaction proceeds many molecules are made varying in size in each case the final nucleotide is marked
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2. What is gene therapy

  • Placing the gene into embryonic cell, this technique is not currently legal and is deemed unethical
  • Any theraputic technique where the functioning allele of a particular gene is placed in the cells of an individual lacking functioning alleles, it can be used to treat some recessive conditions but not dominant conditions eg huntingtons
  • 1) improving a feature of the recipient cell eg resistant crops, growth controlling gene in farms 2) engineering organisms to synthesise useful products eg insulin, golden rice

3. Electrophoresis is

  • Used to separate DNA fragments based on their size, as the negatively charged fragments are attracted to the positive electrode
  • 3) gel immersed in a buffer solution and electric current passed through for 2 hours 4) short lengths move faster than long lengths therefore move further 5) position of fragments can be shown with a dye or radioactive marker
  • 4) BACs taken and cultured, DNA extracted, restriction enzymes cut into smaller fragments 5) fragments sent through electrophoresis 5) sequenced using automated process 6) computers compare overlapping regions to reassemble whole BAC sequence
  • 1) pimer joins at 3' end 2) DNA polymerase attatches and adds free nucleotides 3) if a modified nucleotide added, polymerase thrown off 4) as reaction proceeds many molecules are made varying in size in each case the final nucleotide is marked

4. Outline automated DNA sequencing, the reaction mixture contains DNA polymerase, single stranded template, free DNA nucleotides, primers

  • 1) the required gene is obtained 2) a copy of the gene is placed (packed and stabalised) in a vector 3) the vector carries the gene to the recipient cell 4) the recipient expresses the gene through protein synthesis
  • 1) pimer joins at 3' end 2) DNA polymerase attatches and adds free nucleotides 3) if a modified nucleotide added, polymerase thrown off 4) as reaction proceeds many molecules are made varying in size in each case the final nucleotide is marked
  • A section of DNA, often in the form of a plasmid, which is formed by joining DNA sections from two different sources
  • 3) gel immersed in a buffer solution and electric current passed through for 2 hours 4) short lengths move faster than long lengths therefore move further 5) position of fragments can be shown with a dye or radioactive marker

5. Outline the process involved in genetic engineering of bacteria to produce insulin

  • 1) mRNA found (centrifuge), reverse transcriptase 2) DNA polymerase and DNA nucleotides added 3) copied DNA built on 4) unpaired nucleotides added at each end (complimentary sticky) 5) plasmid, DNA, ligase mixed, recombinant plasmid 6) bacteria, agar
  • 1) improving a feature of the recipient cell eg resistant crops, growth controlling gene in farms 2) engineering organisms to synthesise useful products eg insulin, golden rice

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