Studying genomes, DNA replication and Genetic Engineering Definitions

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1. An organism is described as transgenic when

  • It contains DNA that has been added to its cells as a result of genetic engineering
  • 1) the required gene is obtained 2) a copy of the gene is placed (packed and stabalised) in a vector 3) the vector carries the gene to the recipient cell 4) the recipient expresses the gene through protein synthesis
  • Formed when DNA is cut using restriction enzymes, it is a short run of unpaired exposed bases seen at the end of the cut section, complimentary bases can anneal together as part of the process of recombining DNA fragments
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2. PCR is different to natural replication as

  • PCR can only replicate short sections of DNA, primer molecules must be added, heating and cooling is required
  • 3) gel immersed in a buffer solution and electric current passed through for 2 hours 4) short lengths move faster than long lengths therefore move further 5) position of fragments can be shown with a dye or radioactive marker
  • 4) BACs taken and cultured, DNA extracted, restriction enzymes cut into smaller fragments 5) fragments sent through electrophoresis 5) sequenced using automated process 6) computers compare overlapping regions to reassemble whole BAC sequence
  • 1) pimer joins at 3' end 2) DNA polymerase attatches and adds free nucleotides 3) if a modified nucleotide added, polymerase thrown off 4) as reaction proceeds many molecules are made varying in size in each case the final nucleotide is marked

3. Replica plating is

  • The process of growing bacteria on agar, then transferring a replica of that growth to plates containing growth inhibitors or promoters, analysis of growth patterns gives information about genetic properties of growing bacteria
  • 1) improving a feature of the recipient cell eg resistant crops, growth controlling gene in farms 2) engineering organisms to synthesise useful products eg insulin, golden rice

4. What is gene therapy

  • Placing the gene into embryonic cell, this technique is not currently legal and is deemed unethical
  • Any theraputic technique where the functioning allele of a particular gene is placed in the cells of an individual lacking functioning alleles, it can be used to treat some recessive conditions but not dominant conditions eg huntingtons
  • 1) improving a feature of the recipient cell eg resistant crops, growth controlling gene in farms 2) engineering organisms to synthesise useful products eg insulin, golden rice

5. Somatic cell gene therapy involves

  • Placing the gene into embryonic cell, this technique is not currently legal and is deemed unethical
  • Placing of the gene in adult differentiated cells, examples include the placing of CFTR genes into the respiratory system cells of individuals with cystic fibrosis
  • 1) improving a feature of the recipient cell eg resistant crops, growth controlling gene in farms 2) engineering organisms to synthesise useful products eg insulin, golden rice

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