Studying genomes, DNA replication and Genetic Engineering Definitions

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1. Recombinant DNA

  • 1) the required gene is obtained 2) a copy of the gene is placed (packed and stabalised) in a vector 3) the vector carries the gene to the recipient cell 4) the recipient expresses the gene through protein synthesis
  • A section of DNA, often in the form of a plasmid, which is formed by joining DNA sections from two different sources
  • 3) gel immersed in a buffer solution and electric current passed through for 2 hours 4) short lengths move faster than long lengths therefore move further 5) position of fragments can be shown with a dye or radioactive marker
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2. Pigs have been engineered to lack the enzyme alpha-1,3-transferase, which means

  • Placing the gene into embryonic cell, this technique is not currently legal and is deemed unethical
  • That immune rejection through xenotransplantation was reduced
  • Placing of the gene in adult differentiated cells, examples include the placing of CFTR genes into the respiratory system cells of individuals with cystic fibrosis

3. Somatic cell gene therapy involves

  • Placing of the gene in adult differentiated cells, examples include the placing of CFTR genes into the respiratory system cells of individuals with cystic fibrosis
  • 1) improving a feature of the recipient cell eg resistant crops, growth controlling gene in farms 2) engineering organisms to synthesise useful products eg insulin, golden rice
  • Placing the gene into embryonic cell, this technique is not currently legal and is deemed unethical

4. Outline the steps involved in sequencing the genome of an organism: 1) the genomes are mapped 2) samples of the genomes are sheered into smaller sections (shotgun approach) 3) sections placed into BACs, transferred to E.coli for replication

  • 4) BACs taken and cultured, DNA extracted, restriction enzymes cut into smaller fragments 5) fragments sent through electrophoresis 5) sequenced using automated process 6) computers compare overlapping regions to reassemble whole BAC sequence
  • 1) pimer joins at 3' end 2) DNA polymerase attatches and adds free nucleotides 3) if a modified nucleotide added, polymerase thrown off 4) as reaction proceeds many molecules are made varying in size in each case the final nucleotide is marked
  • 3) gel immersed in a buffer solution and electric current passed through for 2 hours 4) short lengths move faster than long lengths therefore move further 5) position of fragments can be shown with a dye or radioactive marker

5. What is gene therapy

  • Any theraputic technique where the functioning allele of a particular gene is placed in the cells of an individual lacking functioning alleles, it can be used to treat some recessive conditions but not dominant conditions eg huntingtons
  • 1) improving a feature of the recipient cell eg resistant crops, growth controlling gene in farms 2) engineering organisms to synthesise useful products eg insulin, golden rice
  • Placing the gene into embryonic cell, this technique is not currently legal and is deemed unethical

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