Studying genomes, DNA replication and Genetic Engineering Definitions

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1. Outline the process involved in genetically engineering golden rice

  • 1) phytoene synthase (from daffodil) and Crt 1 enzyme (soil bacteria) are inserted into the rice, near the specific promoter sequence that switches on the genes associated with endosperm development - genes expressed as endosperm (bit you eat) grows
  • 1) improving a feature of the recipient cell eg resistant crops, growth controlling gene in farms 2) engineering organisms to synthesise useful products eg insulin, golden rice
  • The process of growing bacteria on agar, then transferring a replica of that growth to plates containing growth inhibitors or promoters, analysis of growth patterns gives information about genetic properties of growing bacteria
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2. A DNA probe is

  • 1) pimer joins at 3' end 2) DNA polymerase attatches and adds free nucleotides 3) if a modified nucleotide added, polymerase thrown off 4) as reaction proceeds many molecules are made varying in size in each case the final nucleotide is marked
  • A single short stranded piece of DNA that is complimentary to a section of the DNA being investigated, it is labelled either using a radioactive marker, or using a fluorescent marker
  • 4) BACs taken and cultured, DNA extracted, restriction enzymes cut into smaller fragments 5) fragments sent through electrophoresis 5) sequenced using automated process 6) computers compare overlapping regions to reassemble whole BAC sequence
  • 3) gel immersed in a buffer solution and electric current passed through for 2 hours 4) short lengths move faster than long lengths therefore move further 5) position of fragments can be shown with a dye or radioactive marker

3. Outline the process involved in genetic engineering of bacteria to produce insulin

  • 1) mRNA found (centrifuge), reverse transcriptase 2) DNA polymerase and DNA nucleotides added 3) copied DNA built on 4) unpaired nucleotides added at each end (complimentary sticky) 5) plasmid, DNA, ligase mixed, recombinant plasmid 6) bacteria, agar
  • 1) improving a feature of the recipient cell eg resistant crops, growth controlling gene in farms 2) engineering organisms to synthesise useful products eg insulin, golden rice

4. A sticky end is

  • Formed when DNA is cut using restriction enzymes, it is a short run of unpaired exposed bases seen at the end of the cut section, complimentary bases can anneal together as part of the process of recombining DNA fragments
  • It contains DNA that has been added to its cells as a result of genetic engineering

5. Somatic cell gene therapy involves

  • Placing the gene into embryonic cell, this technique is not currently legal and is deemed unethical
  • Placing of the gene in adult differentiated cells, examples include the placing of CFTR genes into the respiratory system cells of individuals with cystic fibrosis
  • 1) improving a feature of the recipient cell eg resistant crops, growth controlling gene in farms 2) engineering organisms to synthesise useful products eg insulin, golden rice

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