Studying genomes, DNA replication and Genetic Engineering Definitions

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1. A DNA probe is

  • 3) gel immersed in a buffer solution and electric current passed through for 2 hours 4) short lengths move faster than long lengths therefore move further 5) position of fragments can be shown with a dye or radioactive marker
  • 4) BACs taken and cultured, DNA extracted, restriction enzymes cut into smaller fragments 5) fragments sent through electrophoresis 5) sequenced using automated process 6) computers compare overlapping regions to reassemble whole BAC sequence
  • A single short stranded piece of DNA that is complimentary to a section of the DNA being investigated, it is labelled either using a radioactive marker, or using a fluorescent marker
  • 1) pimer joins at 3' end 2) DNA polymerase attatches and adds free nucleotides 3) if a modified nucleotide added, polymerase thrown off 4) as reaction proceeds many molecules are made varying in size in each case the final nucleotide is marked
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2. Primers are

  • Short, single stranded sequences of DNA around 10-20 bases in length, they are needed in sequencing reactions and polymerase chain reactions to bind to a section of DNA as DNA polymerase can't bind directly to single stranded DNA fragments
  • 4) BACs taken and cultured, DNA extracted, restriction enzymes cut into smaller fragments 5) fragments sent through electrophoresis 5) sequenced using automated process 6) computers compare overlapping regions to reassemble whole BAC sequence
  • 1) pimer joins at 3' end 2) DNA polymerase attatches and adds free nucleotides 3) if a modified nucleotide added, polymerase thrown off 4) as reaction proceeds many molecules are made varying in size in each case the final nucleotide is marked
  • 3) gel immersed in a buffer solution and electric current passed through for 2 hours 4) short lengths move faster than long lengths therefore move further 5) position of fragments can be shown with a dye or radioactive marker

3. An organism is described as transgenic when

  • Formed when DNA is cut using restriction enzymes, it is a short run of unpaired exposed bases seen at the end of the cut section, complimentary bases can anneal together as part of the process of recombining DNA fragments
  • It contains DNA that has been added to its cells as a result of genetic engineering
  • 1) the required gene is obtained 2) a copy of the gene is placed (packed and stabalised) in a vector 3) the vector carries the gene to the recipient cell 4) the recipient expresses the gene through protein synthesis

4. Genomics refers to

  • 3) gel immersed in a buffer solution and electric current passed through for 2 hours 4) short lengths move faster than long lengths therefore move further 5) position of fragments can be shown with a dye or radioactive marker
  • 4) BACs taken and cultured, DNA extracted, restriction enzymes cut into smaller fragments 5) fragments sent through electrophoresis 5) sequenced using automated process 6) computers compare overlapping regions to reassemble whole BAC sequence
  • The study of the whole set of genetic information in the form of the DNA base sequences that occur in the cells of organisms of a particular species, the sequenced genomes of organisms are placed on public access databases
  • 1) pimer joins at 3' end 2) DNA polymerase attatches and adds free nucleotides 3) if a modified nucleotide added, polymerase thrown off 4) as reaction proceeds many molecules are made varying in size in each case the final nucleotide is marked

5. Outline the steps involved in sequencing the genome of an organism: 1) the genomes are mapped 2) samples of the genomes are sheered into smaller sections (shotgun approach) 3) sections placed into BACs, transferred to E.coli for replication

  • 3) gel immersed in a buffer solution and electric current passed through for 2 hours 4) short lengths move faster than long lengths therefore move further 5) position of fragments can be shown with a dye or radioactive marker
  • 4) BACs taken and cultured, DNA extracted, restriction enzymes cut into smaller fragments 5) fragments sent through electrophoresis 5) sequenced using automated process 6) computers compare overlapping regions to reassemble whole BAC sequence
  • 1) pimer joins at 3' end 2) DNA polymerase attatches and adds free nucleotides 3) if a modified nucleotide added, polymerase thrown off 4) as reaction proceeds many molecules are made varying in size in each case the final nucleotide is marked

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