studies on memory

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  • Created by: Robyn
  • Created on: 24-01-14 10:54
Shepard 1976- duration of LTM
pps shown 612 memorable pictures, one at a time. An hour later- shown some of same pics and some others= perfect recognition. 4 months later= 50% recognition
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Bahrick et al 1975- duration of LTM
people of various ages asked to put names to faces from their yearbook. 48 years on- 70% accuracy
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Peterson and Peterson (1959)- duration of STM
24 students. experimenter said a consonant syllable (nonsense trigram) to pp followed by 3 digits. once heard pp counts backwards from 999 in 3/4s until told to stop (interference). pp then recalled trigram. retention interval increased by 3.
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Peterson and Peterson's findings
3 second interval= 90% accuracy. 2% accuracy after 18 seconds
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Nairne et al (1999)- duartion of STM
item recall across 96 seconds.pps asked to recall same items across trials. Material lasts in STM unless replaced by other material
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Miller (1956)- capacity of STM
wrote an article called 'magic number seven plus or minus two'. Reviewed psychological research and found avg= 7 items of info. Also found chunking increases capacity
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Simon (1974)- capacity of STM/ chunking
The size of the chunk affects how many chunks you can remember. People had a shorter memory span for larger chunks, such as 8-word phrases, than smaller chunks, such as 1-syllable words.
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Cowan (2001)- capacity of STM/ chunking
reviewed studies on the capacity and concluded STM= 4 chunks
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Jacobs (1887)- capacity of STM
found the avg for letters= 7.3 and 9.3 for numbers. There are only 9 numbers and 26 letters. Also found digit-span increased with age
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Baddeley (1966)- encoding
tested effects of acoustic and semantic similarity on short and long term memory. gave pps lists of words to learn and recall. Word lists were either: acoustically dis/similar, semantically dis/similar.
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Baddeley (1966)- findings
pps found acoustically similar hard in STM but not LTM. Semantically similar was hard in LTM not STM= acoustic confusion in STM and semantic confusion in LTM
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Brandimote et al (1992)- encoding
pps used visual encoding in STM when given a visual taskand prevented from verbal rehearsal in retention interval before performing visual recall task.
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Frost (1972)- encoding
long term recall related to visual as well as semantic categories
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define LTM
memory for events that have happened in the past. this lasts anywhere from 2 minutes to 100 years ago.
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define STM
memory for immediate events. STM memories last a very short time and disappear unless rehearsed
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define duration
measure of how long memory lasts before it is no longer available
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Define capacity
a measure of how much information can be held in memory. Measured in terms of bits of information such as digits.
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define encoding
the way informatin is changed so that it can be stored in memory. Info enters brain through the senses and is then stored in various forms.
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define chunking
Miller proposed that the capacity of STM can be increased by grouping bits of info together (logically/memorably).
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Bahrick et al 1975- duration of LTM


people of various ages asked to put names to faces from their yearbook. 48 years on- 70% accuracy

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Peterson and Peterson (1959)- duration of STM


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Peterson and Peterson's findings


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Card 5


Nairne et al (1999)- duartion of STM


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