Studies of Obedience

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Milgram's aim
Investigate the extent to which ordinary people obey orders when it involves harming an innocent person
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Milgram's sample
40 males aged 20-40 from New Haven, America. No record of aggression and from range of professions
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Milgram's findings
100% continued to 300 volts when man knocked on wall. 65% carried on to highest 450 volts
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Milgram - Protection of Pps example
Pps were visibly distressed - sweating, pleading, 3 had seizures
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Milgram - Protection of Pps, his defence
He thoroughly debriefed them afterwards and made sure they were okay for some time after. Many said they were glad they'd taken part
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Milgram - Protection of Pps comment
No ethical guidelines at the time, were introduced based on studies like his, so he had no reason not to. Predicted a much lower obedience rate
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Milgram - low ecological validity (mundane realism) example
Conducted in a lab and does not reflect real life situations as was artificial.
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Milgram - low ecological validity defense
The physical distress displayed by Pps showed they thought it was real so it has experimental relaism
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Milgram - low ecological validity comment
Obedience in real world demonstrated by Hofling when nurses obeyed dangerous instructions
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Milgram - sample bias example
Only used males from the New Haven area. Can't be generalised to females or people from different cultures
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Milgram - sample bias comment
Included people from lots of professions and replicated experiment later for females and different cultures
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Sheridan and King - procedure
Pps gave real shocks to a puppy to train it, increasing voltage. After a while anesthetic sent it to sleep, asked to carry on shocking
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Sheridan and King - findings
75% continued to highest shock
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Hofling - procedure
22 nurses working in different hospitals got a call from unknown dr to give overdose of fake drug to a patient
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Hofling - findings
21/22 nurses obeyed
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Milgram's sample

Back

40 males aged 20-40 from New Haven, America. No record of aggression and from range of professions

Card 3

Front

Milgram's findings

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Milgram - Protection of Pps example

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Milgram - Protection of Pps, his defence

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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