1. Which piece of research supports Maddi's study?
- Lifton: students with high Hardiness scores were more likely to finish their degrees
- Ruffin: daily hassels were linked to greater psychological and physical disfunction than life events
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2. What are the three stages of Hardiness Training?
- Focusing: learn to indentify the physical symptoms of stress, Relieving: learn to analyse stressful situations to understand coping strategies, Self-improvement: take on challenges which can be coped with to build confidence
- Conceptualization: indentify fears and concerns, Skill acquisition: train to develop skills like positive thinking and relaxation to improve self confidence, Application: practise skills in real life
3. What did Marucha do in his study?
- Inflicted punch biopsies in the mouths of students either in the holidays or during exam season
- Took blood samples from students in a low stress and high stress period, immune system functioning was measured by NK cell activity
4. What did Holmes and Rahe find out?
- A positive correlation between high life event scores and amount of illness while those who had low life event scores had low illness rates
- Daily hassels increased job strain and decreased job performance, some nurses felt the uplifts counteracted the hassels and these uplifts improved job performance
5. Who created the Hassels and Uplifts Scale?