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Moghaddam et al 1993
Found NA relationships mainly individualistic + non-voluntary. Non- western; collective + obligatory.
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Singh 1989
males favor females with a smaller hip-to-waist ratio.
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Gaulin and Robbins 1995
HIF favour boy, LIF favour girl (50%)
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Clark and Hatfield 1989
75% males would, 0% females wouldnt - supports Batemans principle.
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Buss and Schmitt
Sexual selection strategies - females short term relationships.
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Cunningham 1986
Women look for males with a square jaw and small eyes - indicate maturity
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Buss 1989
Similar preferences cultures - 37/ 6 continents/ 10,000 people. Found: men desired a younger attractive partner and women preferred male characteristics translate into resources. Both: intelligence + kindness/ opposes socio-biological.
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Hazan and Shaver
Questionnaire found securely attached infants had lasting happy relationships.
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Longitudinal study - early childhood into 20's. Securely attached children are more socially competent + develop secure friendships.
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Nicholson 1999
Argues too much emphasis on evolutionary psych as factors dont hold as much influence today: more developed minds + knowledge. Some people might not have children.
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SCN from hamsters; took on new rhythms: supports endogenous pacemaker SCN as important in maintaining circadian rhythms.
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Blind man; rhythm of 24.9 hours, Zeitgebers such as clocks failed to reset rhythm: relied on sedatives and stimulants. Supports light as an exogenous as impacts melotonin production.
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Wehr et al 2001
In winter SAD patients produced melatonin for significantly longer than control. - change analogous to changes that signal behaviour change e.g. migration. - evidence for SAD and light relationship.
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Russell 1980
Took pheromones from one woman and applied to a group of sexually inactive women; cotton pads were on womans armpit; dissolved in alcohol + put on upper lip of women. 4/5 women synchronised with donor - evidence for zeitgebers.
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3 months cave; dim lighting, menstrual cycle 26 days - 1yr to return to normal. Dimmer lighting = more production of melatonin - impacts SCN. Circadian impacted infradian.
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Berger 1929
Identified 2 major EEG patterns: Desynchronised (awake and active) and Synchronised (millions firing together asleep)
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Ohayon et al 2004
Meta-review 65 studies. Percentage of REM sleep decreases from 25 to 9 mintues, NREM decreases by 60% from 5 - 70 years. - Individual differences.
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Sleep deprived e.g. Randy Gardner spent more time in stage 4 (SWS) - critical to recovery.
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Beaumont et al 2004
Melatonin given 3 days at bed before travel reduced jet lag symptoms; supports how melatonin production is an important factor in maintaining rhythms. The hormone carried out the role the endogenous pacemaker of the pineal gland would normally do.
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Ohayon et al 2004
Meta review 65 studies of sleeping patterns (5-102 years) Found: sleep time decreases over age from 470 mins at 5 to 370 at 70 years.REM: 25 to 19 mins Deep NREM: -60% (Alzheimer's supports link between NREM and cognitive processes)
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Dement 1999
Lack of research into sleep among the middle-aged.
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Borbely 1986
Polyphasic sleeping declining in Greece (42% adopting siestas) Remains widely observed in China - research findings may not be universally applicable.
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Borbely et al 1981
Adults aged 65-83 found 60% took frequent daily naps. Naps in elderly may account for reduced sleep times at night; unclear whether total sleeping time decreases in all elderly people.
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Speilman 1991
Predisposing, precipitating and perpetuating model (Insomnia)
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Bonnet and Arand 1995
Found insomniacs are more likely to experience hyper-arousal when awake and asleep.
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Monk et al 2007
Found a strong link between higher neurotic-ism as a personality trait: Supports idea of being tense before bed as a partial explanation; some people more tense than others.
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Vgontaz 2001
Found association between insomnia + increase in hormone ACTH. This is caused by chronic activation of the HPA - stress causes the insomnia: Cause and effect an issue.
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Morin et al 2003
67 participants (40 insomniacs) Questionnaires assessing daily stressors, pre-sleep levels of arousal + Q of sleep. Found: Although insomniacs experienced roughly same amount of stressors;reported higher levels of anxiety. Perception (cognitive)
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Schramm 1993
Examined test-retest reliability of structured sleep interview and lab recordings. Main source of disagreement between interviewers was found in the symptom info given: subjective self-reports shouldn't be relied on.
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Smith 2002
Provided physiological support for biological differences. 5 insomniacs, 4 controls: studied polysomnographically for 3 nights, whole brain scans on 3rd. Insomniacs - consistent decreases in blood flow in frontal cortices. (associated with CNS act)
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Von Economo 1916
Brain damage to hypothalamus patients had similar symptoms. Damage can affect cells that secrete hormone hypocretin: linked to narcolepsy.
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Arii et al 2001
16 yr old girl, damage to hypothalamus when tumour removed = low levels of CFS compared to controls. Removal of tumour damaged cells in hypo which secreted hypocretin.
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Dogs bred vulnerable to narcolepsy have a mutation that affects hypocretin cells.
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Thannickal 2009
Found mutations in the HLA gene in people with narcolepsy. This gene controls part of our immune response so mutation = abnormal immune response destroys hypocretin cells. (hypo receptors may just be insensitive)
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Mignot et al
Concordance rates for narcolepsy in MZ twins - 25%: environmental factors important in narcolepsy.
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Brainerd 1983
Suitable training can lead to younger people developing skills they are not yet biologically ready for
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Mogdil et al
Suggested self discovery learning activities in the classroom may reduce learning as less tiem is spent on content e.g. reading
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Brainerd 2003
Argues tutorial training is more effective. Discussed 5 studies where self discovery of conservation concepts was compared to guided discovery. Found guided more effective. (opposes piagets suggestion of self-discovery)
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Kohlberg moral understanding (Heinz)
72 Chicago boys 7-16 years: 9 dilemmas. 26 years.
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Gilligan 1982
Males see morals in terms of rules and rights whereas women base it more on ethics and care.
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Colby 1993
20 year study, 58 American males - progressed through stages same - supporting research of Kohlberg
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Selman (understanding of others) Osterman 1997
Cross cultural research: 2000 children from diff countries analysed as how they solve disputes; findings generally agreed with Selmans.
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Wimmer and Perner
Maxi chocolate bar; play; transferred from blue to green cupboard; 57% of 4-6 yr olds realised maxi had not seen, 86% of 6-9 year old's could.
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Perner, Leeham and Wimmer
Smarites tube - under 4's stated pencils - inability to distinguish between what they believe from another persons perspective.
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Baron-Cohen 1985
Sally-Ann 80% autistic said Anne's box, 15% typical children: autistic lack theory of mind moreso.
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Calaghan et al 2005
All children from Canada, Peru and India understood the concept of false belief tasks aged 5. Reinforces 5 years being the age children develop theory of mind.
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Grayling 2008
Existence of mirror neurons in us all suggests morality is innate and provide biological conditions for repeating behaviour.
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Rizzoletti et al 2006
Neural activity in hands was similar when watching and doing hand gestures
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Galsee and Goldman 1998
Mirror neurons may provide us with the ability to understand the minds of others.
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Carpenter and Neilson 2008
Our experiences growing up may help us to be more sensitive to others feelings. Supported by neural plasticity which suggests brain structure can be altered by experience. (nature + nurture)
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males favor females with a smaller hip-to-waist ratio.


Singh 1989

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HIF favour boy, LIF favour girl (50%)


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75% males would, 0% females wouldnt - supports Batemans principle.


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Sexual selection strategies - females short term relationships.


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