Stuart Britain Revision

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  • Created by: Ashley2K
  • Created on: 15-05-17 10:31
What is the Divine Right of Kings?
The Divine Right of Kings is the belief that God appointed a King, therefore giving the Kings the belief they should have absolute respect and authority.
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What were the 3 main traits of James' personality?
He was very intelligent, he had favourites and was very extravagant.
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How did James enforce the union between Scotland and England?
He proclaimed himself King of Great Britain at court, a unite coin commisioned and ships were ordered to carry the Union Flag.
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How did the English feel about the union?
They were worried Scotland would inherit the goods of England and give nothing back, there was xenophobia as the English disliked the Scottish and they were worried about the conflicts caused by two seperate religions.
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How did the Scottish feel about the union?
Xenophobia towards the English, worried about conflicts caused by two seperate religions.
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Why did James see the union as desireable?
James saw it as a great way to end racism between the two countries, an effective way to end confusion over religion, a way to unionise the two legal systems and a way to strengthen the economy.
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What 3 factors suggest James was not to blame for England's financial problems?
1. Elizabeth had been involved in wars which cost a great deal of money (£400K) 2. The peers and gentry were under-taxed 3. Inflation
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What 2 factors suggest that James was to blame for England's financial problems?
1. He was very extravagant, buying things such as jewels and expensive clothes. 2. He was very generous and spent lots of money on his favourites, around £400K of crown income was spent on favourites per year.
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Why was the Bates case significant in showing the Divine Right of Kings?
John Bates was a merchant who refused to pay the import duty imposed by James, the matter was taken to the Court of the Exchequer in 1606. Bates lost with the judgement being the power of the King is absolute.
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What were Cecil's 2 main achievements in his role as treasurer?
1. He created the book of rates extending impositions and updated the tax rates 2. He reduced Royal debt by £500K
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What was The Great Contract?
The Great Contract was an agreement proposed by Cecil, in which in return for £200K, the King would give up his rights of Wardship and Purveyance.
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Why didn't James like the idea of The Great Contract?
He didn't like the idea of losing some rights as a King, and compared it to prostitution.
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Why didn't Parliament like the idea of The Great Contract?
1. They would have to increase taxes to accomodate it, this would create a rift between Lords and their subjects. 2. Parliament was afraid James wouldn't call Parliament again if he was financially independent.
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What two policies is Thomas Howard most known for?
1. He sold titles such as Sir and Lord, the Nobility was not impressed 2. Spanish marriage: tried to set up Prince Charles with the Spanish Infanta.
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How did Thomas Howard's time as treasurer affect the Crown's financial situation overall?
He was a very corrupt man, and during his time as treasurer, Crown debt doubled.
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How did Lionel Cranfield manage the Crown's finances?
1. He balanced James' books by reducing the Royal Household Budget. 2. He enforced two Forced Loans.
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What were the two main reasons there was no financial solution to finances during James' reign?
1. James' extravagance 2. There was too much corruption amongst Lord Treasurers.
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What were the three main characteristics of James' court?
1. Corrupt. 2. Full of drinking and drugs 3. Extravagant
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What was the Overbury Case?
Francis Howard was married, but she wanted to gain power at Court and loved James' favourite Robert Carr. They murdered her husband, when found guilty, they avoided the death sentence being placed under house arrest.
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What did the case show about court?
The case showed the public how corrupt the court was, it also showed the regular citizens how distant they were from court.
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What are the three key factors of the Catholic church?
1. Bible and services done in Latin 2. The pope is the head church 3. Church is above the government, so the pope is above the king.
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What are the three key factors of the Protestant church?
1. Services and bible were in English 2. The services were simple and plain 3. The monarch was the head of the church, not the Pope.
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What are the four main characteristics of the Presbyterian church?
1. Scottish church 2. Very simple and pure, polar opposite of Catholics 3. Disliked the Church being run by Bishops who were often wealthy and corrupt 4. Believe in predestination.
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What are the two main characteristics of the Puritan church?
1. Want to purity the Church (and remove Catholic influences) 2. Believe in predestination
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What are the four main characteristics of the Armenian church?
1. Believe that Bishops should run the church 2. Believe in Free Will (not predestination) 3. Believe in ceremony, ritual, kneeling at the alter 4. Want the church to be nicely decorated with stained glass.
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What did James want to achieve in terms of religion?
James wanted to achieve religious uniformity (all of subjects to share the same religious views of himself, the monarch)
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Why were Catholics against this?
1. They had their loyalty first and foremost to the Pope 2. Toleration was simply not possible
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What were Puritans main requests of the millenary petition?
1. Requested that the Church should be run by "Able and sufficient men" i.e. Ministers who were right for the job 2. It also requests for Bishops to be properly maintained
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What were the three main points for discussion at the Hampton Court Conference?
1. It was decided that Bishop's to be abolished 2. Reforms to the Church were promised 3. The requests of Puritans were discussed.
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How strictly were the rules of the Hampton Court Conference enforced?
Not much changed other than the Bible's translation into English, which angered Puritans as they wanted more revolutionary change. Also the Bishop's gowns remained in place, something Puritans hated as it was too Catholic.
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What did the 1604 Canons (Church Rules) enforce?
1. It split the Puritans 2. People had to accept the 'Book of Common Prayer' and agree to the Canon's by making an oath 3. The Church still remained 'High Church' (more Catholic with ceremony, ritual and decoration.
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What was the gunpowder plot?
Mainly a response to Anti-Catholic measures, which were done under pressure from Puritans along with the financial attraction of Recusancy Fines. The gunpowder plot was the failed attempt to blow up the House of Lords, killing James I.
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What were Recusancy fines?
Recusancy fines were the fines imposed upon those who did not attend Protestant Church, it also fined people who had their children Baptised and were married by a Catholic Priest.
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What happened to those involved in the gunpowder plot?
The plot failed, but the men involved were hung drawn and quartered, which acted as a powerful message to Catholics.
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What did James force Catholics to do in 1606?
James made them sign the Oath of Allegiance, making them renounce the Pope's supremacy.
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What happened between James and the Catholics in 1608?
James issued the 1608 Apology in order to neutralise the Catholic situation.
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What are the main ways in which James alienated different religious groups during his reign?
1. Allowing the 1618 Book of Sports made Puritans furious 2. 'A New Gag for an Old Goose' was published which attacked the Presbyterian and Puritan idea of predestination. 3. Anti-Catholic measures alienated Catholics.
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What did James wish to be known as (in regards to foreign policy)
Rex Pacificus - meaning peaceful king.
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What were James' two main foreign policy aims?
1. Pursue peaceful foreign policy 2. Promote international cooperation and friendship.
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What were James' three motivations for peace?
1. War was very expensive and the UK was in debt 2. His own personal beliefs 3. War with Spain could result in invasion as Spain were more dominant.
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What were the three main points of the 1604 Treaty of London?
1. An agreement to end the war between England and Spain 2. Gained trading rights in Spain, benefitting the economy 3. Considered a huge success for foreign policy.
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What were the two positive aspects of the Spanish Match?
1. James wanted to be seen as a mediator between the Catholic Spanish and Protestant UK 2. The Spain would give a huge dowry, which was needed for England's debts.
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Why didn't the English people like the idea of the Spanish Match?
The English people hated Catholics, therefore meaning they hated the Catholic Spanish.
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Why did the Spanish Match ultimately fail?
The match ultimately ended with the failure of the Madrid Trip, something that Buckingham would later be blamed for.
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Why did the Thirty Years War happen?
A Catholic was elected to be King of Bohemia, Protestant Bohemians felt threatened and a revolt broke out against the King Ferdinand. The Bohemian's offered the Crown to James' son-in-law Frederik of the Palatinate who accepted despite being advised
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Why did the Thirty Years War happen? (2)
being advised not to. Ferdinand, the Catholic King of Bohemia had support from the Bavarians who invaded Bohemia and drove out Frederik along with seizing his old lands in the Palatinate. James was roped in to help his son-in-law and his daughter, so
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Why did the Thirty Years War happen? (3)
threatened war (not intending to go into it, just hoping other countries would react.
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What was the Shirley case?
An MP was arrested when Parliament was sitting, which the King had no right to do, this angered Parliament. This problem was mainly caused because of James' opinion of his Divine Right.
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What were the main financial problems between James and his first Parliament?
1. Wardship and Purveyance was being collected when it was not legal 2. Impositions were not legal, yet the were still being collected, they were not in the Book of Rates 3. James was over-extravagant
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What were the main religious problems between James and his first Parliament?
1. After the Gunpowder plot, Parliament wanted Catholics to be persecuted, which they weren't 2. The Spanish match was hated by Parliament as the Spanish were Catholic.
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What were the main financial issues between James and his second (addled) Parliament?
1. The extravagance in the marriage of his daughter Elizabeth and son Henry angered Parliament 2. Wardship and Purveyance were still being collected 3. Impositions still being collected 4. Still in debt due to James' incompetent financial advisors
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What were the main financial issues between James and his third Parliament of 1621?
1. A bad harvest meant that James' subjects were struggling financially, starvation was a huge issue 2. Due to this, inflation was starting to become an issue.
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What were the main religious problems between James and his third Parliament of 1621
1. Parliament wanted to pursue an Anti-Spanish Foreign Policy 2. In response to James ordering the discussion of Foreign Policy to stop, Parliament drew up a document stating the rights MP's wanted such as Freedom of Speech and freedom from arrest
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What did James do when he saw the Protestation of the Commons? (The document that the Parliament drew up in response to James' order to stop discussing foreign policy)
When he saw the document, he screwed it up, arrested some of the more vocal MP's including John Pym and then dissolved Parliament.
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What were the main financial problems with James' fourth and final Parliament?
1. £300K was given to James to pursue an Anti-Spanish foreign policy, this ultimately would not be enough 2. An act was passed which limited the power of Monopolies.
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What were the main religious problems of James' fourth and final Parliament?
War with Catholic Spain was very much on the cards following the return of Charles and Buckingham from Madrid, the trip was very embarrassing.
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What were the main prerogative issues during James' fourth and final Parliament?
1. The discussion of Foreign Policy in Parliament was legalised which Parliament were more than happy about 2. Cranfield was impeached
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How did James' attitude towards Parliament change over time and how did this affect the country?
James was at first inflexible with Parliament, however in the latter years of his life he realised this was not the best way to be and eased off, which boosted his crumbling relationship and benefitted the country greatly.
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What were the three main positives of Charles I's character?
1. He was a man of honor 2. He was loyal to his wife 3. He kept to his principles
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What were Charles' main setbacks in terms of personality?
1. Poor communication skills 2. Hated debate 3. Not articulate 4. Not politically pragmatic 5. Strong belief in the Divine Right of Kings.
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What did Buckingham lead in 1625?
He led the failed expedition in Cadiz (an attack on Spain) the army got to the coast, got drunk and had to be evacuated, on the way home many of the ships ran out of food, causing many deaths. The expedition was embarrassing and a drain of money.
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What marriage would Buckingham later arrange in 1625?
He would arrange the marriage between Charles and Henrietta Mria, in the hope that France would help the cause against Spain, which they didn't. The marraige only caused a union between the Catholic France and Protestant UK which annoyed Protestants.
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What did Buckingham do in 1627?
1. He encouraged Charles I to declare war on France while the war with Spain was still going on 2. He led the Isle de Rhe expedition to help the French Huguenots, this failed yet again and they were forced to retreat after heavy losses.
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What was the main financial problem between Charles and his first Parliament of 1625-29?
They only granted Tonnage and Poundage to Charles for one year, whereas in a usual situation it was granted for life, Charles saw this as a huge attack on his prerogative.
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What were the main religious problems with Charles' first Parliament from 1625-29?
Montague was appointed as Royal Chaplain, outraging Parliament because of his attacks of doctrines such as predestination.
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How did Buckingham help to cause tensions between Charles and his first Parliament of 1625-29?
His failed expeditions infuriated Parliament.
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How did Charles' foreign policy decisions cause tensions between him and his Parliament of 1625-29?
Parliament specified that any war was to be a naval war, and on that condition they gave Charles money, however he spent it on a land war, and so had gone against his promise.
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In what year was forced loan imposed?
1627.
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Why was ship money failing in 1627?
It was supposed to be collected from those living in coastal areas, this was not done effectively due to a large quantity of people who opposed it.
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Why did Charles call the 1628 Parliament?
Charles called it because he needed to get approval for future taxations.
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What did Parliament put forward in 1628?
Parliament put forward 'The Petition of Right' a document put forward by Parliament requesting that the King should recognise the illegality of extra-Parliamentary taxes among other issues such as billeting, martial law and imprisonment of MP's
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What did Parliament put forward in 1628? (2)
without a trail . Charles accepted (compromised) and so he was granted subsidies by Parliament.
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Why did Charles justify collecting tonnage and poundage during the 1629 Parliament?
He continued to collect Tonnage and Poundage, which went against 'The Petition of Right' which he said was part of Royal Prerogative.
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Who did Charles appoint as Bishop of London in 1629?
He appointed the arminian, William Laud to Bishop of London, Parliament were not happy about this.
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Who did Charles appoint as Royal Chaplain in 1629?
He appointed the arminian Mr Montague, MP's were not happy about this because of his published 'A new gag for an old goose' attacking predestination.
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How did the structure of Charles' court create a divide between the Crown and general public?
The structure of Charles' court was very rigid and it made it harder for him to hear the views of his people. This created a strong divide between the Crown and the General Public.
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Why did the Puritans hate court masques?
1. They used female actresses, when it was considered that only men could be actors 2. It should absolutist influences 3. They were very Catholic in influence.
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Why did the Puritans hate court religion?
1. Charles was fond of the arts and often hired Catholic painters to do his portraits 2. The Catholic influences in masques 3. The Queen was a French Catholic.
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What was the Book of Orders?
It was a book of instructions sent to key figures in Government whom it felt had neglected their duties. The orders included instructions on: an increase in the collection of taxes, the upkeep of roads and the movement of goods.
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What was the Book of Orders designed to help with?
In 1631 riots broke out in response to the recession caused by poor harvests, many were left hungry and unemployed and the Book of Orders was designed to help with this.
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What were the two main financial issues during the personal rule?
1. War 2. £1M worth of debt.
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How did he resolve these two issues?
He resolved war with peace treaties. He then resolved his debt by cutting expenditure and increasing income through trade, customs, tonnage and poundage, impositions and other prerogative rights.
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How did Charles I use the Distraint of Knighthood as a form of collecting prerogative income during the Personal Rule?
It was a tax that stated all men with an income of over £40 a year would be expected to present themselves to the Coronation of a new king in order to be knighted. However, inflation meant many people found themselves in this bracket who were not of
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How did Charles I use the Distraint of Knighthood as a form of collecting prerogative income during the Personal Rule? (2)
a high enough social standing, Those men who did not fulfill these obligations were fined. Charles raised £170K through this method. Although the method was quick, simple, legal and effective, it was detested.
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What three other forms of prerogative income did Charles use during the Personal Rule?
1. Wardship 2. Recusancy fines 3. Monopolies
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How did Charles' financial policy affect his relationship with court?
1. His bribes were becoming less generous 2. Access to the King was becoming even less 3. They hated prerogative taxation
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What 4 other groups did Charles' prerogative income methods alienate?
1. Merchants 2. Everyday people 3. Landowners and peers 4. The gentry
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What were Laud's aims with his reforms?
Communian, Baptism and Marriage were all renewed with a new sense of ritual and ceremony. These reforms were not popular.
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Why were Laud's reforms hated from a financial standpoint?
They were very expensive to inform, for example the cost of stained glass and fabric. Also, Bishops required funding.
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Why were Laud's reforms hated from a religious standpoint?
Many saw the Church as becoming too Catholic, the Canons caused much controversy among Presbyterians and riots broke out. Also, the Book of Sports meant that many felt religion was being undermined and their holy day was weakened.
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What were the main arguments of Burton, Bastwick and Prynne?
1. They considered the Bishops corrupt 2. They thought Laud was too lavishly looked after 3. They hated the inflexibility of his policies
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How did Laud respond to this criticism?
He said he was appointed by God, so had every right to input the changes. He said that he was only hated because people were jealous and claimed that by criticising Bishops, they were criticising the King, as they were appointed by the King.
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What happened to Burton, Bastwick and Prynne?
They had their ears cut off, they had their cheeks branded and were fined £5K. Laud was later criticised for punishing non-conformers too severely.
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What were the four main causes of the First Bishops War?
1. The act allowing land to be borrowed from the Crown was revoked, meaning landowners had to give land back. It alienated landowners 2. Charles neglected Scotland, not visiting once, meaning they were unconnected and only saw Charles for his unpopul
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What were the four main causes of the First Bishops War? (2)
changes 2. Charles' desire for uniformity meant that the Scottish and English were infuriated by his changes to religion. Many considered him too Catholic 4. The National Covenant
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What was the National Covenant?
It was a covenant signed by many Scottish Presbyterians against changes to their religion.
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How did Charles approach the first Bishops War?
He wanted to show no weakness and decided to go to war against his own people in a hop that they would back down. He hired an English army and marched them to the Scottish border, however many were not willing to fight against fellow Protestants.
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How did Charles approach the first Bishops War? (2)
A truce was signed and Charles agreed to call another Scottish Parliament.
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What caused the second Bishops War?
It was caused by Charles not allowing his Parliament to have a debate over issues they wanted hearing, he wanted money in return for giving up Ship Money, which wasn't granted, angering him.
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Why did Charles lose the second Bishops War?
His troops were inadequately trained, poorly disciplined, poorly equipped and lacked funding, whilst fighting the Scottish Covenanters, many of whom were veterans from the Thirty Years War.
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What were the three main factors of The Long Parliament?
1. It showed the continued weakness of the King 2. It unified the opposition 3. It attacked the Kings ministers rather than the King (as attacking the King directly would be considered treason)
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What three acts did The Long Parliament carry out in terms of individuals?
1. Laud was sent to the Tower of London, where he was later executed 2. Burton, Bastwick and Prynne were released 3. Thomas Wentworth was also sentenced to death
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What four acts did The Long Parliament carry out?
1. The abolishment of the High Court and Star Chamber 2. The declaration that Ship Money and the Distraint of Knighthood was illegal 3. The Triennial Act was passed, meaning Parliament had to be called at least every three years 4. Parliament could
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What four acts did The Long Parliament carry out? (2)
only be dissolved if they agreed to it.
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Card 2

Front

What were the 3 main traits of James' personality?

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He was very intelligent, he had favourites and was very extravagant.

Card 3

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How did James enforce the union between Scotland and England?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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How did the English feel about the union?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

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How did the Scottish feel about the union?

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