Structures and Bonding

Particle-ularly gripping stuff

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  • Created on: 09-03-16 09:57
Strong forces of attraction holding particles in a fixed shape. Particles do not move, keeping a definite shape and volume. Particles vibrate more and expand with more heat.
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Weak forces of attraction between particles. Free to move around but tend to stick closely to one another. Flow to fill container. Constantly moving with random motion. Expand and move faster when heated.
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Very weak forces of attraction. Free to move and there is space between them. Fill any container - no fixed shape or volume. Move constantly with random motion. With heat, gas becomes faster and expand or their pressure increases.
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Experiment: Ammonia (NH3) and Hydrogen Chloride (HCl)
Place cotton wool soaked with Ammonia and cotton wool soaked with Hydrogen Chloride at two ends of a glass tube. A ring of Ammonia Chloride forms nearest to HCl end because Ammonia is smaller, lighter and quicker at diffusing.
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Experiment: Bromine Gas (Br2) and Air
Fill half a gas jar full of brown Bromine gas and half with air, separated with glass. Remove glass and Bromine will diffuse. Random motion of gas particles means brown diffuses throughout gas jar.
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Experiment: Potassium Manganate (KMnO4) and Water
Purple colour of Potassium manganate slowly diffuses to fill beaker. Random motion of liquid causes colour to evenly spread.
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Atoms structure
Atoms have a small nucleus containing protons and neutrons. Tiny electrons surround this in shells. Protons have a Positive charge. Neutrons have No charge. Electrons have a Negative charge. Altogether, atoms have NO charge whereas ions do.
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A pure substance of one type of atom
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Two or more elements chemically combined. Difficult to separate.
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Atoms or molecules mixed together but not joined. E.g. Air - Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen and Water Vapour.
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Periodic Table Trends
Periods = energy levels (shells). Groups = determines electrons in the outer shell. E.g. Magnesium is in Period 3 Group 2. It has 3 shells and 2 electrons in outer shell.
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Group 1 - Alkali metals
1 outer election - keen to lose so do not covalently bond. More energy levels = more shielding & less attraction = increased reactivity. Vigorous reaction to water producing Hydrogen and Alkaline solution.
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Transition metals
Good conducters of heat & electricity. Often have more than one ion. Colourful compounds.Good catalysts.
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Group 7 - Halogens
7 outer electrons - need to gain 1. Melting and boiling point increase down group. Reactivity decreases. Form Halide ions when they gain an electron. In aqueous salt solutions, more reactive halogen will displace less reactive.
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Group 8 - Noble Gases
Do not react.
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Test for Hydrogen
Lit splint into gas filled test tube. Squeaky pop = presence of Hydrogen.
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Ionic Bonding
Between metal and non-metal. Ions are formed. Electrons transferred. E.g. Magnesium Oxide MgO
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Covalent Bonding
Between metal and non-metal. Sharing electrons.E.g. Carbon Dioxide CO^2
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Giant covalent structure. Layers with little attraction slide over eachother. Free electrons so conducts electricity. Strong covalent bonds - high melting point.
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Silicon Dioxide
High melting point. Strong covalent bonds. Giant lattice tetrahedral structure. No free electrons - does not conduct electricity or heat.
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Giant covalent tetrahedral structure - hard and strong. High melting point. No free electrons - does not conduct electricity.
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Joined by nano-tubes (tiny hollow carbon tubes) Hexagonal rings of carbon atoms in large 'cages' shaped like hollow balls. Very strong.
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Very tiny particles. Effective catalysts - large surface area to volume ratio. Conduct electricity. Can be used in sensors to detect molecules, deliver drugs to certain cells, sun-creams and deodorants -effectively block out UV rays, 1nm = 1x10^-9m
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Gases in the atmosphere
Nitrogen 78%, Oxygen 21%, Argon 0.9%, Carbon Dioxide 0.04% Other 0.06%. / Separating - Fractional distillation. Nitrogen stays as gas, liquid oxygen flows out of bottom
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Uses of Nitrogen and Oxygen
Nitrogen - store sperm in hospitals, store food, reduce risk of explosion in oil tankers, make ammonia fertilisers / Oxygen - help people breathe at accident, steel making and welding processes.
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Iron is the only element that rusts [others corrode]. It needs oxygen to rust. To prevent we can coat it in paint, oil, grease, plastic, less or more reactive metal (sacrificial protection)
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Reactivity series {top to bottom]
Potassium, Sodium, Lithium, Calcium, Magnesium, Aluminium, Carbon, Zinc, Iron, Tin, Lead, Hydrogen, Copper, Silver, Gold
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Give examples of an Acid, an Alkali and Neutral
Acid: Hydrochloric Acid, Lemon Juice, Vinegar, Black Coffee. Alkali: Sodium Hydroxide, Oven Cleaner, Milk of Magnesia. Neutral: Water
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What is Universal Indicator?
Tells us whether a substance is alkaline, acidic or neutral. It gives a certain colour with determines where on the pH scale the substance is. E.g. Red = Very acidic.
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Oxidation is Loss of electrons, Reduction Is Gain of electrons
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What is a displacement reaction and why is it used? Give an example.
In a salt. metal higher in the re-activity series will displace a metal lower. This can be used to extract pure metal from a salt. E.g. Sodium +Iron Chloride = Iron + Sodium Chloride /or/ Calcium + Magnesium Sulfate = Magnesium + Calcium Sulfate.
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Which element is always present in acids? Give an example.
Hydrogen // Hydrochloric Acid HCl // Sulfuric Acid H2SO4 // Nitric Acid HNO3
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When added to water, what do acids and alkali's form?
Acids form H+ ions in water. Alkali's form OH- ions. // OH- + H+ = H20
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How is Reduction used to extract metal from rocks?
Elements below Carbon in the reactivity series are added to Carbon. Oxygen is removed to create Carbon Dioxide and a pure metal. Such as Iron (III) Oxide + Carbon = Iron + Carbon Dioxide
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How is Electrolysis used to extract metal from rocks?
A substance is broken down using electricity. The electrolyte (liquid) must conduct electricity At the Anode+ is an impure metal. Positive ions are attracted to the Cathode- which becomes pure metal. Impurities are left at the Anode as sludge.
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How is Bio-leaching used to extract Copper?
Bioleaching involves using bacteria and copper sulfide. Bacteria gains energy from the bond and separates out the copper. The leaceate (contains copper) can be extracted by filtering
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How is Phytomining used to extract Copper?
This involves growing plants in copper-rich soil. They cannot use the substance so deposit it in their leaves. Plants can be harvested, dried and burned in a furnace. Copper is collected from the ash.
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Card 2




Weak forces of attraction between particles. Free to move around but tend to stick closely to one another. Flow to fill container. Constantly moving with random motion. Expand and move faster when heated.

Card 3




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Card 4


Experiment: Ammonia (NH3) and Hydrogen Chloride (HCl)


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Card 5


Experiment: Bromine Gas (Br2) and Air


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