Structure and bonding

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  • Created by: Sam Evans
  • Created on: 04-10-14 21:41
What is a compound?
A substance made of two or more elements that have reacted together or that are chemically bonded
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Which electrons in an atom are involved in bonding?
Outer electrons (electrons that are in the outer shell)
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What happens to the electrons in atoms when ionic bonds are formed?
They are transferred or metal atoms lose electrons and non metals gain electrons
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What happens to electrons in atoms when covalent bonds are formed?
They are shared. For each covalent bond one pair of electrons is shared
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Why do elements in Group 1 form ions with a single positive charge?
They lose their one outer electron.
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Why do the elements in Group 7 form ions with a single negative charge?
They gain one electron so their outer shell is full
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Which of the following substances are made of molecules? KCl, H2O, C2H6, MgO, CO2, NaNO3
H2O, C2H6, CO2
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Why can the structure of a metallic element like copper be represented by lots of small spheres the same size packed together?
The atoms in copper are all the same size, they are spherical, they are closely packed together (in a giant structure)
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Write the correct formula for each of the following: lithium chloride, sodium oxide, calcium flouride, magnesium hydroxide, sodium sulfate, calcium nitrate.
LiCl, Na2O, CaF2, Mg(OH)2, NaSO4, Ca(NO3)2
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Why do ionic compounds have giant structures?
The oppisitely charged ions attract each other in all directions which keeps them strongly packed together in a regular arrangement (lattice)
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Draw a dot and cross diagram to show the bonding in methane, CH4. (Draw on sheet of paper)
Central C with with four shared pairs of electrons. 4 x H with o x around it
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Draw diagrams using symbols and lines to show the covalent bonds in F2, O2, HBr, H2O, NH3 (Draw on sheet of paper)
F-F, O=O, H-Br, H-O-H, N with 3 lines each to an H
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Draw dot and cross diagrams to show what happens when a potassium atom reacts with flourine atom (Draw on sheet of paper)
Potassium with one electron, Flourine with seven electrons, Potassium ion with no electrons and flouride ion with 8 electrons.
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Explain why silicon (in Group 4) has a giant structure
Silicon atoms form four covalent bonds, each silicon atom can join to four others, the bonds are strong: this continues so that a giant structure is formed
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Explain how the atoms in a piece of sodium metal are held togethera
The Otuer electrons delocalise, leaving a lattice of positive ions; the delocalised electrons attract the positive ions; the electrostatic forces are strong, and these hold the ions in positive
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Which electrons in an atom are involved in bonding?

Back

Outer electrons (electrons that are in the outer shell)

Card 3

Front

What happens to the electrons in atoms when ionic bonds are formed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happens to electrons in atoms when covalent bonds are formed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why do elements in Group 1 form ions with a single positive charge?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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