Structure of the cardiovascular system

What does the heart sit in?
The fibrous pericardium, which attaches to the heart and diaphragm to anchor it in place. It is made of a connective tissue sheath. It consists of three layers. Outer fibrous layer which anchors the heart to the sternum and diaphragm.
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Continued.
Visceral layer-adherent to the heart (can't see the difference) Parietal peridcardium- lines the inner surface of fibrous layer. Small fluid filled space-separating V and P lubricates and reduces friction when heart beats.
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what does tamponade mean?
When anything is introduced into the fluid filled space and the heart collapses.
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what joins the pulmonary artery and aorta?
A ligament that is important in embryology, as blood doesn't collect oxygen from the lungs so it bypasses and goes straight to the aorta. It becomes a ligament when you're born.
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What is the purpose of the fibrous skeleton of the heart?
1.for attachment of valves and muscles 2.To separate electrical signals between atria and ventricle.
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Features of the right atrium.
Posterior wall and interatrial septum smooth walled. anterior wall has muscular ridges (musculi pectinati) Fossa ovalis- in fetus the blood would bypass the lungs and flow from right to left atrium-formane ovale remains.
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Features of the right ventricle
internal surface contains muscular ridges (trabeculae carneae). Superior section smoothed walled. papillary muscles are attached to the cusps of the AV valve by chordae tendinae.
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Features of the left atrium
forms base of heart. posterial walls are smooth. anterior wall continuous with left auricle (musclai pectinati)
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Features of left ventricle.
Lies anterioraly on the left side. muscular ridges are more delicate.
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What is an auricle?
Wrinkled pouches that sit on top of each atria. The increase the capacity of the atrium so increase the volume of blood it can contain.
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Coronary arteries of the heart.
Little overlap of blood supply to each area, originate at the base of the aorta in a dilated area called aortic sinus. Venus drainage to coronary sinus. left CA- left ventricle, atrium and iv space. Right CA- right atrium both ventricles and nodes
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Why do the papillary muscles tense during ventricular systole?
To prevent cusps flapping outwards, which closes valve. When the blood tries to flow backwards the cusps fill up.
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How many cusps in the bi/tricuspid and SL valves?
2,3,3
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What are the heart sounds?
S1-closing of av valve S2-closing of SL valve S3-filling of ventricles S4-atrial contraction
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Blood vessels entering and leaving the heart.
Superior VC very short, brings blood from upper body. Inferior VC brings from everywhere else. Pulmonary trunk divides to left and right pulmonary artieries. Aorta- right head, brain and right upper limb. middle-head and brain left-upper limb.
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continued.
Descending limb of aorta becomes thoracic aorta.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Continued.

Back

Visceral layer-adherent to the heart (can't see the difference) Parietal peridcardium- lines the inner surface of fibrous layer. Small fluid filled space-separating V and P lubricates and reduces friction when heart beats.

Card 3

Front

what does tamponade mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what joins the pulmonary artery and aorta?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the purpose of the fibrous skeleton of the heart?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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