Structure and Bonding

  • Created by: LBCW0502
  • Created on: 15-10-17 09:00
A good understanding of chemistry is needed for what? (5)
Design/synthesis of new drugs, understand effect of drugs, understand drug interactions in living organisms, predict drug properties and how drugs are controlled for purity
1 of 68
What are atoms?
The simplest building blocks which can form elements
2 of 68
What is an element?
A substance made up of only one type of atom and cannot be separated into simpler substances via chemical reactions
3 of 68
What is a compound/molecule?
A substance made up of two or more different types of atoms chemically bonded in fixed proportions
4 of 68
What is the periodic table?
A tabular arrangement of elements in vertical columns (groups) and rows (periods) based on similar chemical properties (ratios with oxygen)
5 of 68
Which atomic theory did Democritus and Dalton develop?
Round sphere with no protons, electrons and neutrons. All matter was composed of atoms (cannot be divided)
6 of 68
Which atomic theory did Thomsom develop?
Plum Pudding Model - mix of positive and negative charge in nucleus
7 of 68
Which atomic theory did Rutherford develop?
Atom made up of empty space with large positive nucleus (Geiger-Marsden experiment)
8 of 68
Which atomic theory did Bohr develop?
Electrons are in discrete energy levels
9 of 68
What is the Modern Quantum Cloud Model?
Mathematical equations used to find location of electrons in atoms (in the orbitals)
10 of 68
What is the size of an atom?
10^-10 m
11 of 68
What is the size of a nucleus?
10^-14 m
12 of 68
What does the central nucleus contain?
Protons and neutrons
13 of 68
What are the masses of a proton and a neutron?
They each have a mass of 1 amu
14 of 68
What are the charges of a proton and a neutron?
A proton has a +1 charge and a neutron has 0 charge
15 of 68
What is the overall charge on a nucleus?
16 of 68
The outer arrangement (orbitals) contains which type of sub-atomic particle?
17 of 68
What is the mass of an electron?
1/1837 amu
18 of 68
What is the charge of an electron?
19 of 68
What is the overall charge on an atom?
Neutral (0) - number of protons equals the number of electrons
20 of 68
Which sub-atomic particles contribute to the mass of an atom?
Protons and neutrons
21 of 68
Which sub-atomic particles contribute to the charge of an atom?
Protons and electrons
22 of 68
What does Z mean?
Atomic number (number of protons)
23 of 68
What does N mean?
Number of neutrons
24 of 68
What does A mean?
Mass number (A = Z + N)
25 of 68
What are isotopes?
Atoms of a particular element that have the same number of protons (and electrons) but different numbers of neutrons (they have different mass numbers)
26 of 68
What are the isotopes of hydrogen?
Protium, deuterium and tritium
27 of 68
How can elements be converted to other elements?
Through nuclear reactions e.g. hydrogen converted to helium
28 of 68
What are chemical bonds?
Electrostatic forces of attraction which hold atoms of elements together in a compound
29 of 68
What are ionic compounds?
Electrons lost (metals/cations) or gained (non-metals/anions) through a transfer. Strong electrostatic forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions
30 of 68
What are covalent compounds?
Electrons are shared between non-metals
31 of 68
What are cations?
Positively charged ions
32 of 68
What are anions?
Negatively charged ions
33 of 68
What are the ways of presenting a formula? (3)
Molecular formulae, structural formulae or molecular model (ball and stick or space filling type)
34 of 68
What is dimerisation?
Monomers are linked together through hydrogen bonds, coordinate bonds or covalent bonds
35 of 68
What are the key points in the Bohr Model of the atom?
Electrons lose energy, arranged in discrete energy levels, principle energy levels/electrons shells, shells are filled in order of increasing energy
36 of 68
Why is the Bohr Model of the Atom wrong?
Electrons in atoms don't occupy simple circular orbits
37 of 68
How do electrons behave similarly to? (2)
Particles and waves
38 of 68
The square of a wave function is proportional to what?
The probability to find an electron in a given space
39 of 68
Each wave function is described by what?
Four quantum numbers - each different orbital has its own individual quantum numbers
40 of 68
What is n?
Principle quantum number - values of n divide orbitals into groups with similar energies (shells)
41 of 68
What is l?
Orbital angular momentum quantum number - tells us the shape of the orbital and can have any value, usually given letters: s, p, d, f
42 of 68
What is m?
Magnetic quantum number - determines orientation of angular movement - where orbitals are in space (+/-)
43 of 68
What is s?
Spin angular momentum quantum number - (+/- 0.5) two electrons occupy the same orbital but must have opposite orientation/spin
44 of 68
Which orbital has a very high probability of finding an electron?
1s orbital
45 of 68
What is the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle?
Position/momentum (MxV) cannot be both known to arbitrary precision. More precise one is known, the less precise the other is known (Quantum Mechanics phenomenon)
46 of 68
Describe an s orbital
Sphere shaped, symmetrical, boundary surface, high probability of finding an electron
47 of 68
Describe a p orbital
There are three p orbitals, dumb-bell shaped, 2 lobes, nodal plane (region with no electron density), three types of orientation
48 of 68
Describe a d orbital
Don't usually focus on
49 of 68
Describe an f orbital
More complex
50 of 68
What is the Aufbau principle?
Electrons enter orbitals of progressively higher energy
51 of 68
What is the Pauli exclusion principle?
An orbital holds a maximum of two electrons
52 of 68
What is Hund's rule?
Equivalent orbitals are half-filled before a second electron enters to be completely filled
53 of 68
What are the key aspects when drawing electronic configuration? (3)
Using rules, arrows (electrons), boxes (orbitals)
54 of 68
What are valence electrons?
Electrons in the outermost shell, interact in chemical reactions, reactivity depends on readiness to interact (ready-reaction, reluctant-no reaction)
55 of 68
What are core electrons?
Completely filled orbitals, don't take part in a chemical reaction
56 of 68
What is a Lewis structure?
Shows symbol for element, shows outermost electrons/valence electrons as dots or crosses. Covalent bond (a dash line), lines are used for bonds
57 of 68
How do you draw a Lewis structure?
Count/add the number of valence electrons from each atom in the molecule/ion. Determine arrangement, subtract electrons used in bonds (2) from total, assign remaining electrons using Lewis rules, correctness
58 of 68
What is the octet rule?
Period 2 or 3 atoms will have a complete octet, hydrogen atoms will have a 'pair'
59 of 68
What is in a single bond?
1 shared pair of electrons
60 of 68
What is in a double bond?
2 shared pair of electrons
61 of 68
What is in a triple bond?
3 shared pair of electrons
62 of 68
Which atom is always singly bonded?
Hydrogen atom
63 of 68
What are lone pairs?
Electrons not involved in forming bonds (arranged in pairs)
64 of 68
Which elements form incomplete octet structures?
Group three elements (B, Al). They form three bonds. Due to small energy group (promotion of electron - extra energy released in bond making)
65 of 68
Due to promotion, carbon forms how many bonds?
66 of 68
Which groups promote electrons to form more bonds?
Groups, 2, 3 and 4
67 of 68
Which atoms form expanded octet structures?
Phosphorous (5 bonds), and sulfur (6 bonds). 3d orbitals available (all due to promotion of electrons)
68 of 68

Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are atoms?


The simplest building blocks which can form elements

Card 3


What is an element?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is a compound/molecule?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is the periodic table?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Pharmacy resources:

See all Pharmacy resources »See all Chemistry of Drugs resources »