Structural Theories on the 'Underclass'

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1. Who argues that the movement from training schemes to parenthood and crime did not create an established underclass?

  • Craine
  • Westergaard
  • Giddens
  • Mann
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2. What does Westergaard believe that the cause of the underclass 'falling' from the working class is?

  • Economic strains
  • A lack of human capital
  • A lack of culture
  • Material deprivation

3. Who argues that there is a dual labour market based on class with the underclass in the secondary market?

  • Craine
  • McDonald and Marsh
  • Giddens
  • Marsland

4. Who criticised Giddens for ignoring gender and ethnicity but still acknowledges there are labour divisions?

  • Mann
  • Runciman
  • Marsland
  • Westergaard

5. Which of these facts about Craine's study of unqualified youths is not true?

  • Craine spent ten years studying the youths
  • Ethnographic methods were used
  • The study was conducted in Manchester
  • Historical documents were observed
  • 39 unqualified youths were studied


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