Structural Theories on the 'Underclass'

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1. Which of these facts about Craine's study of unqualified youths is not true?

  • Historical documents were observed
  • Craine spent ten years studying the youths
  • The study was conducted in Manchester
  • Ethnographic methods were used
  • 39 unqualified youths were studied
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2. What was Runciman's seven class system based on?

  • Levels of human capital
  • Control, power and marketability
  • Cultural deprivation
  • Economic divisions

3. Who argues that the movement from training schemes to parenthood and crime did not create an established underclass?

  • Craine
  • Giddens
  • Mann
  • Westergaard

4. Who theorizes that marginalisation is due not to personal choice but material deprivation?

  • Westergaard
  • Mann
  • McDonald and Marsh
  • Craine

5. What does Westergaard believe that the cause of the underclass 'falling' from the working class is?

  • Economic strains
  • A lack of human capital
  • A lack of culture
  • Material deprivation


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