Stress-related illness: The immune system

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: racheon
  • Created on: 04-02-14 18:35
What is the immune system?
A collection of billions of cells that travel through the bloodstream.
1 of 37
How do immune system cells do their job?
They move in and out of tissues and organs, defending the body against foreign bodies.
2 of 37
What are the main types of immune cells?
White blood cells.
3 of 37
How many types of white blood cells are there, and what are they called?
There are 2 types, and they are called lymphocytes and phagocytes.
4 of 37
How many types of lymphocytes are there, and what are they called?
There are 2 types, and they are called B cells and T cells.
5 of 37
When we're stressed what happens to the immune system's ability to fight off antigens, and what does this make us more susceptible to?
The immune system's ability to fight off antigens is reduced, causing us to be more susceptible to infections.
6 of 37
What does the stress hormone corticosteroid do?
Suppress the effectiveness of the immune system.
7 of 37
During stress what happens to digestion?
It is inhibited.
8 of 37
After stress what happens to digestive activity?
It increases.
9 of 37
What does the fluctuating activity of the digestive system due to stress affect, and what can it cause?
It affects the health of the digestive system and causes ulcers.
10 of 37
What can also cause ulcers due to stress apart from digestive activity?
Adrenaline.
11 of 37
What causes strain upon the circulatory system caused by stress responses?
Increased heart rate.
12 of 37
How can stress affect the immune system?
By raising blood pressure.
13 of 37
What is a major risk factor in coronary heart disease?
Hypertension
14 of 37
What external factors can cause CHD? (3)
Eating too much salt, drinking too much coffee, or drinking too much alcohol.
15 of 37
How can stress have indirect effect on health?
It's associated with bad habits which are likely to have an adverse effect on a person's health so could cause some ill-effects attributed to stress.
16 of 37
Is short term suppression of the immune system dangerous?
No.
17 of 37
What does chronic stress leave the body vulnerable to?
Infection and disease.
18 of 37
What did Kiecolt-Glaser study in 1984?
Short term stress.
19 of 37
Outline what Kiecolt-Glaser did in their study in 1984.
They got 75 medical students preparing for their final exams to complete questionnaires on negative life events and social isolation. Their immune function was also measured via activity of B and T cells before and during exams by taking blood tests.
20 of 37
What did Kiecolt-Glaser find after their study in 1984?
Immune function was lower during exams, and even lower in those reporting high social isolation.
21 of 37
What did Kiecolt-Glaser conclude after their study in 1984?
Exam stress weakens immune function.
22 of 37
Evaluate Kielcolt-Glaser's study in 1984.
Used direct measurement of immune function but didn't investigate illness outcomes, can't generalise findings-only used medical students, follow up studies show similar outcomes, strengthening their conclusion.
23 of 37
Outline what Cohen et al did in their study.
They got 394 participants to rate their stress levels, and complete questionnaires on stressful events in the previous year and depression, and combined them to give a "stress index" score.
24 of 37
What did Cohen find after he exposed his participants to the cold virus?
82% became infected, and after 7 days the most stressed were most likely to develop full colds.
25 of 37
What were Cohen et al's findings after the study?
A higher stress index score correlated with the chances of developing a cold.
26 of 37
Evaluate Cohen et al's study.
Big sample, questionnaires-people might not be truthful, events over the previous year-people might not remember, immune function was not measured directly, correlational study-can't confirm cause and effect, other factors not taken into account.
27 of 37
Why does not everyone exposed to high levels of stress develop stress related illnesses?
Individual differences.
28 of 37
What are individual differences that differentiate people that get stress related illnesses?
Drinking, smoking, taking drugs; support network; personality.
29 of 37
What did Segerstrom & Miller do?
They reviewed many studies of stress and the immune system.
30 of 37
What did Segerstrom & Miller conclude?
Short term stressors lead to increased natural immunity and long term stressors lead to a weakening of natural and specific immunity known as global immunosuppression.
31 of 37
Outline Marucha et al's study.
They did a 'punch biopsy' in the mouth during the sumer holidays and 3 days before an exam.
32 of 37
What did Marucha et al find?
The wounds before exams took 40% longer to heal.
33 of 37
What did Kiecolt-Glaser et al's test in 2005?
The impact of interpersonal conflict on blister wounds on the arms of married couples.
34 of 37
What did Kiecolt-Glaser find after their study in 2005?
Wounds healed more slowly after conflict.
35 of 37
What did Kiecolt-Glaser compare in 1987?
Women separated from their partners with married women.
36 of 37
What did Kiecolt-Glaser find after her study in 1987?
Poorer immune system in women who had separated in the last year.
37 of 37

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How do immune system cells do their job?

Back

They move in and out of tissues and organs, defending the body against foreign bodies.

Card 3

Front

What are the main types of immune cells?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How many types of white blood cells are there, and what are they called?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How many types of lymphocytes are there, and what are they called?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Stress resources »