Training against stress

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What is stress inoculation therapy? (SIT)
type of CBT that trains people to deal with anxiety and stressful situations more effectively by learning skills to 'inoculate' against damaging effects of future stress
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What did Meichenbaum think and produce?
We cannot change the cause of stress (ie a job is a job) but we can change our outlook on the stress (work isn't good = i'm a failure/still done work = boss will be happy) he produced SIT a type of Cognitive Beahvioural Therapy = develop to cope
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What are the 3 phases?
Conceptualisation phase, skills acquisition phase, application phase
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What is the conceptualisation phase?
Therapist and client establish a relationship - client is educated about stress (taught threats are problems to be solved and stressors are components to be broken down + dealt with)
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What is the skills acquisition phase?
Coping skills are taught and practised primarily in the clinic then gradually in real life - variety of skills are taught and tailored to needs of client (positive thinking, relaxation, social skills, coping self statements -'relax you're in control'
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What is the application phase?
Given opportunity to apply new skills in different situations that become increasingly stressful, (imagine, modelling - watching someone else - role playing, helping others with same issue)
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What is a strength of the SIT?
Meichenbaum compared SIT with systematic de-sensitisation on reduces snake phobia - although both reduced SIT was better as it helped them treat second untreated phobia. SIT can inoculate
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What is another strength of the SIT?
It prepares you for future stressors - it teaches you methods that are repeatable and can be applied to many situations
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What is Hardiness training?
Increasing self confidence and sense of control so that individuals can more successfully navigate changes in their lives
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Who funded the Hardiness Institute in California
Maddi and Kobasa
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What is the client taught in hardiness training?
FOCUSING - recognising the biological signs of stress RELIEVING stress encounters - helped to analyse stress encounters and their responses to them (insight to current coping strategies) SELF improvemetnt - taught to focus on stressors as challenges
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Eval - does it work?
Utah Valley State College offers hardiness training to at-risk students (helps them to stay in and graduate from school by learning to deal with encounters)
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How is it used in the Olympics?
By swimmers to ensure they are committed to the chalenge of increased performance levels and are able to deal with the stress of daily lives that may affect their performance
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What are theproblems with Hardiness training?
It must first learn aspects of the personality and learned habits of coping that are hard to modify - not a rapid solution to stress management
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What are the biological methods of stress management?
Drug therapies - benzodiazepines (BZ) and Beta-Blockers
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What are BZ's ?
Treat anxiety and stress by enhancing the action of GABA neurotransmitters - by binding to cell receptors sites on the GABA receptor cells allowing more chlorine ions to enter the neuron (more resistant to excitation) thus the person feels calmer
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What do BZ's do to serotonin?
Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that causes an arousing effect on the brain - BZ's reduce any incr serotonin activity
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What do beta-blockers (BB) do?
They reduce the activity of adrenaline and noradrenaline (part of sympathomedullary response to stress) they bind to beta-receptors on cells of heart and other parts of body stimulated by arousal. Cause reverse effects of stress hormones.
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Effectiveness of drugs?
Ease of use = quick and effective way of dealing with stress with almost instant results
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Weaknesses of drugs?
Not an extended solution - drugs can be addictive (low doses of BZ show withdrawal symptoms) - side effects, may cause opposite of what's intended i.e. incr. aggressiveness of BZ'z & cognitive side effects BB are not known to cause side effects
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What meta analysis was conducted on BZ's?
Kahn et al. 250 patients found that BZ's effectivenesswas much higher than the placebo drug
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What did Meichenbaum think and produce?

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We cannot change the cause of stress (ie a job is a job) but we can change our outlook on the stress (work isn't good = i'm a failure/still done work = boss will be happy) he produced SIT a type of Cognitive Beahvioural Therapy = develop to cope

Card 3

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What are the 3 phases?

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Card 4

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What is the conceptualisation phase?

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Card 5

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What is the skills acquisition phase?

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