stress as a bodily response

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  • Created by: jesstench
  • Created on: 02-03-15 11:27
what is a stressor?
A stressor is an event, such as extreme heat, loud noise or an unpleasant memory that triggers a stress response (physiological changes) in the body.
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define stress
Stress can be defined as a type of alarm reaction, involving psychological and bodily states. It is both a physiological and psychological response to a stressor in the environment.
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what causes cardiovascular disorders?
Cardiovascular disorders are disorders of the heart and blood vessels, such as coronary heart disease (CHD), high blood pressure (hypertension) and strokes.
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what may increase the likelihood of developing cardiovascular disorder?
People who experience stress may engage in unhealthy activities, such as smoking and drinking alcohol, which increase the likelihood that the person will develop a cardiovascular disorder.
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what causes stress?
Stress is a direct cause of high heart rate and high blood pressure, which may weaken blood vessels. Weakened blood vessels may result in heart attacks. Adrenaline and noradrenaline cause increased blood cholesterol levels, and clumps of cholesterol
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state the aim of Friedman and Rosenman's study
Based on their observations of patients who displayed the Type A behaviour pattern of impatience, competitiveness and hostility, Friedman and Rosenman aimed to test their belief that Type A personalities were more prone to coronary heart disease (CHD
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state the procedure of Friedman and Rosenman's study.
The sample comprised 3000 male volunteers, all from California, USA, aged between 39 and 59 who were healthy at the start of the study. Structured interviews and observations of the participants’ behaviour during the interview were used to assess per
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state the findings of Friedman and Rosenman's study.
Seventy per cent of those with CHD had been classified as Type A. They had higher blood pressure and higher levels of adrenaline and cholesterol. Twice as many Type A men died as Type Bs. Type As were also more likely to smoke and have a family histo
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state the conclusion of Friedman and Rosenman's study.
Type A personality is associated with illness and symptoms of CHD. Because Type A is also linked to other factors that cause CHD, such as smoking, it is not certain whether Type A is a direct or an indirect cause of CHD.
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state three strengths of Friedman and Rosenman's study.
● It was a long-term study of a large sample and thus had high ecological validity. ● It showed how psychological factors (personality) can be related to physiological effects. ● It was well designed with a clear baseline, as all men were assessed as
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state three weaknesses of Friedman and Rosenman's study.
● The sample was all male and so the findings cannot be generalised to females. ● The self-report measures may not be reliable or valid. ● It is not certain that the men would always respond to the interview questions in the same way.
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what is in the immune system?
The immune system consists of cells in the bloodstream, most notably white blood cells, that defend the body against bacteria, viruses and cancerous cells
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what does stress do to the immune system?
Stress directly reduces the ability of the immune system to protect us against antigens, which leads to an increased likelihood of physical illness. In long-term stress,increased levels of corticosteroids reduce the production of antibodies
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how does stress make the body more susceptible to disease?
Stress temporarily reduces the activity of the immune system (suppresses it). This is a direct effect and leaves the body more susceptible to disease.
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what are the aims of Kiecolt Glaser's study?
Based on the assumption that the body’s response to stress reduces the effectiveness of the immune system (immunosuppression), Kiecolt-Glaser et al. aimed to establish a link between stress and reduced immune system functioning. They looked for evide
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what was the procedure of Kiecolt Glaser's study?
Seventy-five first-year medical students (49 male and 26 female) volunteered to give blood samples 1 month before their final exams and after they had sat two papers on the first day of the exams. The blood samples were analysed for how much ‘natural
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what were the findings of Kiecolt Glaser's study?
In the second blood sample (after the exams), natural killer cell activity was significantly reduced and was the most reduced in those students who were experiencing other stressful events
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what were the conclusions of Kiecolt Glaser's study?
This study shows that stress has an immunosuppressant effect. However, because this is a correlational design, it is only possible to say that stress is related to reduced immune system functioning, not that stress causes reduced immune system functi
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name 3 strengths of Kiecolt Glaser's study.
● This was a natural experiment — the exams were going to happen anyway — thus the research had high mundane validity. ● Quantitative and qualitative measures were taken from the same participants, which increases the reliability of the results. ● Th
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name 2 weaknesses of Kiecolt Glaser's study.
● It is not possible to say that no other variable could have caused the change in the students’ immune system as these could not be controlled (e.g. lack of sleep due to long hours revising might have affected the immune system). ● It is not possibl
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Card 2


define stress


Stress can be defined as a type of alarm reaction, involving psychological and bodily states. It is both a physiological and psychological response to a stressor in the environment.

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what causes cardiovascular disorders?


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Card 4


what may increase the likelihood of developing cardiovascular disorder?


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what causes stress?


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