Stress and Health

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  • Created by: dgibson18
  • Created on: 11-01-14 17:21
Linden (2005)
A meditational process in which stressors trigger an attempt at adaptation or resolution that results in individual distress if the organism is unsuccessful in satisfying the demand
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Lazarus (1966)
A psychological state which derives from the person's appraisal of the success with which they can adjust to the demands of the environment
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Kivimaki et al (2002)
Prolonged stress can lead to arterial damage
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Cohen et al (1999)
Stress has been more likely to develop a cold
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Cropley & Steptoe (2005)
Hypertension more common in high stress jobs and more symptoms
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Johnston (2002)
Stress can cause illness through two inter related mechanisms
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Marmot (1998)
CHD more prevalent = lower class, high chronic stress
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Carroll (2002)
Emergencies not strongly correlated to heart attacks, other variables such as drinking etc
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Seyle (1956)
General Adaptation Syndrome - 1) challenge, 2) activation of bodies coping systems, 3) fight/flight/freeze, CNS activation & dearousing parasympathetic activity, exhaustion, disease potential
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Cannon (1932)
Fight or Flight - ACTH prepares organs, activation of PNS opposes these actions and facilitates recovery, external threats elicit the response
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Safafino (2002)
Sympathetic Adrenal Medullary Axis - feed info into pitiuitary gland & ACTH released into blood stream, Hypothalamic Pituitary Axis - electrochemical changes down spinal cord to adrenal glands, release epinephrine/norepinephrine
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Folkman & Lazarus (1987)
The Transactional Model of Stress - Problem Focused Coping (action plans, lists, change of environment), Emotion Focused Coping (processing the affects, managing anxiety, positive thinking, denial), primary & secondary appraisal
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Lazarus & Folkman (1978)
coping consists of efforts, both action orientated and intrapsychic, to manage environmental and internal demands and conflicts among them
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Laudenslager et al (1985)
Social support, increase self efficacy, talking about problems, confrontation rather than avoidance of problem, humour
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Suls & Fletcher (1985)
approach orientated vs. avoidance orientated
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Endler et al (1993/1998)
Distinguish 3 dimensions: 1) emotion orientated (daydreaming, emotional response), 2) task orientated (problem solving, strategies), 3) avoidance orientated (distraction/social diversion)
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Cox & McKay (1978)
Stress is the result of an appraisal process that sees the situation as threatening but the person's response capacities as insufficient to deal with the stressor
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Millier (1987)
Style - monitor vs blunter. monitors have dispositional tendencies to approach problems, seek out threat relevant info, blunters tend to avoid or distract themselves from threat relevant info
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Friedman & Rosenman (1959)
TAB is a multidimensional concept combing action and emotion and is manifest in individuals showing: competitiveness, time urgent beh, easily annoyed/aroused, hostility, anger, impatience, achievement oriented beh, vigorous speech patterns
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Temoshok & Fox (1984)
Type C personality: Cooperative and appeasing, compliant, passive, stoic, unassertive, self-sacrificing, tendency to inhibit negative emotions, particularly anger. Have an increased risk of cancer, evidence is mixed
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Denollet & Potter (1992)
Type D personality: describes a distressed personality with individuals scoring high on negative affectivity & social inhibition. Research limited but suggests association with high mortality following cardiac events, even control biomed risk factors
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Leopold & Dillon (1963)
factors influencing PTSD: important aspects of events - whether victim is alone or in group, whether event is human design or natural, whether accidental/deliberate, whether potentially controllable
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Brown & Campbell
statistically worse events - lack of warning, abrupt contrast of scene, loss of control, unfamiliar event, uncertainty, duration, time of occurrence, magnitude of outcome, involvement of children, human error, feature of post disaster environment
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Basogul, Livanou, Salcioglu & Kalender (2003)
17,127 people died, over 130,000 homes destroyed, 231 people, 48 from epicentre, 183 3km away, rest from istanbul, 35% receiving antidepressant drug therapy (beh therapy). 87% women, 34% had previous trauma exposure, 1st ses76%, 2nd ses 88%
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Beck (1976)
Cognitive approaches to stress management - e.g. evaluating appraisals and automatic thoughts
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Linden (1987)
poor correlation between self reported distress & physiological changes (eg heart rate, BP, breathing rate) cannot effectively measure stress
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Johnston (1993)
Stress management lowers BP
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Gallacher (1997)
Stress management lowers angina
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Holmes & Rahe (1967)
developed the schedule of recent experiences (SRE) list of possible life events, association between SRE & health found, ranged from death of spouse to change in sleeping habits
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Lazarus (1966)


A psychological state which derives from the person's appraisal of the success with which they can adjust to the demands of the environment

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Kivimaki et al (2002)


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Cohen et al (1999)


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Cropley & Steptoe (2005)


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