6. what are the effects of adrenaline in the blood?
increased oxygen and glucose supply in the brain
increased blood pressure
7. What is stimulated by the hypothalamus?
The pituatory gland
8. Whats Griffiths 6 characteristics of addiction?
Salience-most important thing is the addiction, mood modification-behaviours change when the addictive substance alters the mood pathway, tolerance-take more of the substance to get desired effect,withdrawal symptoms, conflict and relapse
Conflict, mood swings, hallucinations.
9. what are issues with the stress response
Miller et al- lack of longitudinal studies. so more research should be done.
Nestor lopez duran et al-Variation in cortisol in children in stressful situations and boys have a greater response to the stressors.
cause and effect of cortisol and illness as eating, sleeping, alcohol, caffeine all increase cortisol levels
10. HANS selye gas model components
Alarm, Relevation, Exhaustion
Alarm, Resistance, Exhaustion
Alertness, Rendering, Exhaustion
Alertness, Releavation, Ending
11. What is the parasympathetic nervous system
Slows down stress response
makes you respond senstively to a situation
Gets you going whilst stressed
makes you respond insensitively to a situaton
12. What is one of the chronic stress responses most commonly known as?
Autonomic nervous system
13. What does a sudden stressor lead to?
An acute stress response
a chronic stress response
A heart attack
14. What is supporting evidence for the acute stress response?
Jonathon Leor et al-Northridge california earthquake links to cardiovascular disorders. Cardiomyopathy is a condition arising from traumatic experience that is commonly mistaken for a heart attack.
Shelley Taylor et al - Females react to stress differently as the "Tend and Befriend hypothesis" shows that women will nurture young (tend) and make social interactions (befriend) when they are stressed.
Joel Dismdale - Cannot blame stress for the heart disorders as there are other factors contributing to this such as high cholestrol.
Lieu et al-Ill people are more stressed than healthy people
15. A strength of the chronic stress response?
Two effects of stress- Up Regulation (ST stress) and down regulation (LT stress) (decreased efficiency)
Social Support-Seltzer-Girls 7-12 had contact with mums after a traumatic experience which showed increased oxytocin and decreased cortisol levels.
Evans-SIGA protects against infection when giving talks but during long term stress the SIGA decreases.
16. Studies to support dopamine and link to addictions
Joutsa et al-gambling causes increased dopamine levels
James Olds and Milner-placed electrode in rats head and stimulated it each time they entered an area of the cage.
Volkow et al-addiction causes changes in the frontal cortex. cocaine addicts for example show abnormalities in their frontal cortex
17. What do all the letters stand for in the HPA axis
H-Hippocampus P-pituatory A-Adrenala Medulla
H- hypothalamus P-pituatory A-Adrenal Medulla
H-Hypothalamus P-Pituatory A-Amygdala
H-Hippocampus P- pituatory A-Amygdala
18. Chronic stress responses
Effects on health-Immunosupression- Immune system shuts down. Effects on memory-cortisol impairs memory Sabrina Kuhlmann administered cortisol to women who were asked to recall 30 words and they struggled to remember.
Prenatal stress-cortisol crosses over the placenta. Thomas O'conner et al - 75 children aged over 10 showed increased cortisol levels if mothers experienced stress during pregnancy
cortisol-regulates the immune system and central nervous system
19. What is secreted by the pituatory gland
20. What is the sympathetic nervous system
Gets you going when you are stressed
makes you respond insensitively to a sensitive issue
Slows down the stress response.
Makes you respond sensitively to a sensitive issue