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6. What is stimulated by the hypothalamus?

  • Frontal Cortex
  • Adrenal Medulla
  • The pituatory gland
  • Adrenal Cortex

7. What is one of the chronic stress responses most commonly known as?

  • Sympathomedullary Pathway
  • HPA axis
  • SAM
  • Autonomic nervous system

8. A long period of stress leads to

  • cancer
  • tumour
  • A chronic stress response
  • An acute stress response

9. What are the effects of sympathetic nervous system

  • serosis of the liver
  • increased heart rate, breathing rate, sweating and trembling
  • cancer
  • cardiovascular disorder

10. What do all the letters stand for in the HPA axis

  • H-Hippocampus P-pituatory A-Adrenala Medulla
  • H- hypothalamus P-pituatory A-Adrenal Medulla
  • H-Hypothalamus P-Pituatory A-Amygdala
  • H-Hippocampus P- pituatory A-Amygdala

11. what evidence is against dopamine?

  • all correct
  • Liberzon et al-PTSD in war veterans when hearing combat sounds
  • Vaughn Bell- "Kim Kardashian of neurotransmitters " as its fashionable to blame dopamine for addictions

12. What is secreted by the pituatory gland

  • Noradrenaline
  • ACTH
  • Adrenaline
  • CRH

13. Chronic stress responses

  • All correct
  • Prenatal stress-cortisol crosses over the placenta. Thomas O'conner et al - 75 children aged over 10 showed increased cortisol levels if mothers experienced stress during pregnancy
  • cortisol-regulates the immune system and central nervous system
  • Effects on health-Immunosupression- Immune system shuts down. Effects on memory-cortisol impairs memory Sabrina Kuhlmann administered cortisol to women who were asked to recall 30 words and they struggled to remember.

14. what are the effects of adrenaline in the blood?

  • blot clots
  • inflammation
  • increased oxygen and glucose supply in the brain
  • increased blood pressure

15. What are the acute stress responses

  • release of adrenaline
  • fight or flight, link to evolution, SAM system , effects on the heart
  • "Tend or befriend"
  • Fight or fight, evolutionary,

16. Whats Griffiths 6 characteristics of addiction?

  • Salience-most important thing is the addiction, mood modification-behaviours change when the addictive substance alters the mood pathway, tolerance-take more of the substance to get desired effect,withdrawal symptoms, conflict and relapse
  • Alarm,resistance, exhaustion
  • D2 receptors
  • Conflict, mood swings, hallucinations.

17. The neurotransmitter responsible for activating organs?

  • Noradrenaline
  • Dopamine
  • Oxytocin
  • Adrenaline

18. Studies to support dopamine and link to addictions

  • Joutsa et al-gambling causes increased dopamine levels
  • James Olds and Milner-placed electrode in rats head and stimulated it each time they entered an area of the cage.
  • all correct
  • Volkow et al-addiction causes changes in the frontal cortex. cocaine addicts for example show abnormalities in their frontal cortex

19. HANS selye gas model components

  • Alarm, Resistance, Exhaustion
  • Alertness, Releavation, Ending
  • Alertness, Rendering, Exhaustion
  • Alarm, Relevation, Exhaustion

20. What is supporting evidence for the acute stress response?

  • Shelley Taylor et al - Females react to stress differently as the "Tend and Befriend hypothesis" shows that women will nurture young (tend) and make social interactions (befriend) when they are stressed.
  • Jonathon Leor et al-Northridge california earthquake links to cardiovascular disorders. Cardiomyopathy is a condition arising from traumatic experience that is commonly mistaken for a heart attack.
  • Lieu et al-Ill people are more stressed than healthy people
  • Joel Dismdale - Cannot blame stress for the heart disorders as there are other factors contributing to this such as high cholestrol.