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6. what are the effects of adrenaline in the blood?

  • increased oxygen and glucose supply in the brain
  • blot clots
  • inflammation
  • increased blood pressure

7. What is stimulated by the hypothalamus?

  • Frontal Cortex
  • The pituatory gland
  • Adrenal Cortex
  • Adrenal Medulla

8. Whats Griffiths 6 characteristics of addiction?

  • Salience-most important thing is the addiction, mood modification-behaviours change when the addictive substance alters the mood pathway, tolerance-take more of the substance to get desired effect,withdrawal symptoms, conflict and relapse
  • Conflict, mood swings, hallucinations.
  • Alarm,resistance, exhaustion
  • D2 receptors

9. what are issues with the stress response

  • Miller et al- lack of longitudinal studies. so more research should be done.
  • Nestor lopez duran et al-Variation in cortisol in children in stressful situations and boys have a greater response to the stressors.
  • all correct
  • cause and effect of cortisol and illness as eating, sleeping, alcohol, caffeine all increase cortisol levels

10. HANS selye gas model components

  • Alarm, Relevation, Exhaustion
  • Alarm, Resistance, Exhaustion
  • Alertness, Rendering, Exhaustion
  • Alertness, Releavation, Ending

11. What is the parasympathetic nervous system

  • Slows down stress response
  • makes you respond senstively to a situation
  • Gets you going whilst stressed
  • makes you respond insensitively to a situaton

12. What is one of the chronic stress responses most commonly known as?

  • Sympathomedullary Pathway
  • Autonomic nervous system
  • HPA axis
  • SAM

13. What does a sudden stressor lead to?

  • An acute stress response
  • A seizure.
  • a chronic stress response
  • A heart attack

14. What is supporting evidence for the acute stress response?

  • Jonathon Leor et al-Northridge california earthquake links to cardiovascular disorders. Cardiomyopathy is a condition arising from traumatic experience that is commonly mistaken for a heart attack.
  • Shelley Taylor et al - Females react to stress differently as the "Tend and Befriend hypothesis" shows that women will nurture young (tend) and make social interactions (befriend) when they are stressed.
  • Joel Dismdale - Cannot blame stress for the heart disorders as there are other factors contributing to this such as high cholestrol.
  • Lieu et al-Ill people are more stressed than healthy people

15. A strength of the chronic stress response?

  • Two effects of stress- Up Regulation (ST stress) and down regulation (LT stress) (decreased efficiency)
  • Social Support-Seltzer-Girls 7-12 had contact with mums after a traumatic experience which showed increased oxytocin and decreased cortisol levels.
  • all correct
  • Evans-SIGA protects against infection when giving talks but during long term stress the SIGA decreases.

16. Studies to support dopamine and link to addictions

  • Joutsa et al-gambling causes increased dopamine levels
  • James Olds and Milner-placed electrode in rats head and stimulated it each time they entered an area of the cage.
  • all correct
  • Volkow et al-addiction causes changes in the frontal cortex. cocaine addicts for example show abnormalities in their frontal cortex

17. What do all the letters stand for in the HPA axis

  • H-Hippocampus P-pituatory A-Adrenala Medulla
  • H- hypothalamus P-pituatory A-Adrenal Medulla
  • H-Hypothalamus P-Pituatory A-Amygdala
  • H-Hippocampus P- pituatory A-Amygdala

18. Chronic stress responses

  • Effects on health-Immunosupression- Immune system shuts down. Effects on memory-cortisol impairs memory Sabrina Kuhlmann administered cortisol to women who were asked to recall 30 words and they struggled to remember.
  • Prenatal stress-cortisol crosses over the placenta. Thomas O'conner et al - 75 children aged over 10 showed increased cortisol levels if mothers experienced stress during pregnancy
  • All correct
  • cortisol-regulates the immune system and central nervous system

19. What is secreted by the pituatory gland

  • ACTH
  • CRH
  • Adrenaline
  • Noradrenaline

20. What is the sympathetic nervous system

  • Gets you going when you are stressed
  • makes you respond insensitively to a sensitive issue
  • Slows down the stress response.
  • Makes you respond sensitively to a sensitive issue