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6. What is supporting evidence for the acute stress response?

  • Jonathon Leor et al-Northridge california earthquake links to cardiovascular disorders. Cardiomyopathy is a condition arising from traumatic experience that is commonly mistaken for a heart attack.
  • Joel Dismdale - Cannot blame stress for the heart disorders as there are other factors contributing to this such as high cholestrol.
  • Lieu et al-Ill people are more stressed than healthy people
  • Shelley Taylor et al - Females react to stress differently as the "Tend and Befriend hypothesis" shows that women will nurture young (tend) and make social interactions (befriend) when they are stressed.

7. A long period of stress leads to

  • A chronic stress response
  • tumour
  • An acute stress response
  • cancer

8. Studies to support dopamine and link to addictions

  • all correct
  • Volkow et al-addiction causes changes in the frontal cortex. cocaine addicts for example show abnormalities in their frontal cortex
  • Joutsa et al-gambling causes increased dopamine levels
  • James Olds and Milner-placed electrode in rats head and stimulated it each time they entered an area of the cage.

9. What are the effects of sympathetic nervous system

  • increased heart rate, breathing rate, sweating and trembling
  • cardiovascular disorder
  • cancer
  • serosis of the liver

10. What do all the letters stand for in the HPA axis

  • H-Hypothalamus P-Pituatory A-Amygdala
  • H-Hippocampus P-pituatory A-Adrenala Medulla
  • H- hypothalamus P-pituatory A-Adrenal Medulla
  • H-Hippocampus P- pituatory A-Amygdala

11. Whats Griffiths 6 characteristics of addiction?

  • Salience-most important thing is the addiction, mood modification-behaviours change when the addictive substance alters the mood pathway, tolerance-take more of the substance to get desired effect,withdrawal symptoms, conflict and relapse
  • Conflict, mood swings, hallucinations.
  • Alarm,resistance, exhaustion
  • D2 receptors

12. What is another name for the SAM system

  • Sympathomedullary Pathway
  • Sympathetic Nervous system (SNS)
  • Autonomic nervous system
  • Adrenal Medulla

13. What is one of the chronic stress responses most commonly known as?

  • HPA axis
  • Autonomic nervous system
  • SAM
  • Sympathomedullary Pathway

14. What is the parasympathetic nervous system

  • makes you respond insensitively to a situaton
  • Slows down stress response
  • Gets you going whilst stressed
  • makes you respond senstively to a situation

15. What does a sudden stressor lead to?

  • A seizure.
  • a chronic stress response
  • An acute stress response
  • A heart attack

16. The neurotransmitter responsible for activating organs?

  • Noradrenaline
  • Adrenaline
  • Dopamine
  • Oxytocin

17. What are the acute stress responses

  • release of adrenaline
  • Fight or fight, evolutionary,
  • fight or flight, link to evolution, SAM system , effects on the heart
  • "Tend or befriend"

18. Once the SNS is activated the SAM sends neurons to which part of the brain

  • Nucleus Accumbens
  • Adrenal Medulla
  • Frontal Cortex
  • Medulla Oblongata

19. A strength of the chronic stress response?

  • Social Support-Seltzer-Girls 7-12 had contact with mums after a traumatic experience which showed increased oxytocin and decreased cortisol levels.
  • Evans-SIGA protects against infection when giving talks but during long term stress the SIGA decreases.
  • all correct
  • Two effects of stress- Up Regulation (ST stress) and down regulation (LT stress) (decreased efficiency)

20. What is the sympathetic nervous system

  • makes you respond insensitively to a sensitive issue
  • Gets you going when you are stressed
  • Makes you respond sensitively to a sensitive issue
  • Slows down the stress response.