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6. What is supporting evidence for the acute stress response?

  • Shelley Taylor et al - Females react to stress differently as the "Tend and Befriend hypothesis" shows that women will nurture young (tend) and make social interactions (befriend) when they are stressed.
  • Jonathon Leor et al-Northridge california earthquake links to cardiovascular disorders. Cardiomyopathy is a condition arising from traumatic experience that is commonly mistaken for a heart attack.
  • Lieu et al-Ill people are more stressed than healthy people
  • Joel Dismdale - Cannot blame stress for the heart disorders as there are other factors contributing to this such as high cholestrol.

7. what are issues with the stress response

  • all correct
  • cause and effect of cortisol and illness as eating, sleeping, alcohol, caffeine all increase cortisol levels
  • Miller et al- lack of longitudinal studies. so more research should be done.
  • Nestor lopez duran et al-Variation in cortisol in children in stressful situations and boys have a greater response to the stressors.

8. A long period of stress leads to

  • A chronic stress response
  • An acute stress response
  • cancer
  • tumour

9. Studies to support dopamine and link to addictions

  • Joutsa et al-gambling causes increased dopamine levels
  • all correct
  • Volkow et al-addiction causes changes in the frontal cortex. cocaine addicts for example show abnormalities in their frontal cortex
  • James Olds and Milner-placed electrode in rats head and stimulated it each time they entered an area of the cage.

10. What does a sudden stressor lead to?

  • A heart attack
  • A seizure.
  • An acute stress response
  • a chronic stress response

11. The neurotransmitter responsible for activating organs?

  • Adrenaline
  • Noradrenaline
  • Oxytocin
  • Dopamine

12. A weakness of chronic stress response?

  • High cortisol causes bone density and low levels cause holiday syndrome and Heim-PTSD and chronic fatigue syndrome
  • Nestor Lopez Duran -variations in cortisol release in children when palced in a stressful situation and boys showed greater cortisol activation in response to the stressor.
  • all correct
  • cause and effect of cortisol and illness as eating, sleeping, alcohol, caffeine all increase cortisol levels

13. Once the SNS is activated the SAM sends neurons to which part of the brain

  • Nucleus Accumbens
  • Medulla Oblongata
  • Adrenal Medulla
  • Frontal Cortex

14. What is the parasympathetic nervous system

  • Slows down stress response
  • makes you respond senstively to a situation
  • Gets you going whilst stressed
  • makes you respond insensitively to a situaton

15. HANS selye gas model components

  • Alertness, Rendering, Exhaustion
  • Alarm, Resistance, Exhaustion
  • Alertness, Releavation, Ending
  • Alarm, Relevation, Exhaustion

16. What is another name for the SAM system

  • Autonomic nervous system
  • Sympathomedullary Pathway
  • Sympathetic Nervous system (SNS)
  • Adrenal Medulla

17. What do all the letters stand for in the HPA axis

  • H-Hippocampus P-pituatory A-Adrenala Medulla
  • H-Hippocampus P- pituatory A-Amygdala
  • H- hypothalamus P-pituatory A-Adrenal Medulla
  • H-Hypothalamus P-Pituatory A-Amygdala

18. What is stimulated by the hypothalamus?

  • The pituatory gland
  • Adrenal Medulla
  • Adrenal Cortex
  • Frontal Cortex

19. What are the effects of sympathetic nervous system

  • increased heart rate, breathing rate, sweating and trembling
  • serosis of the liver
  • cardiovascular disorder
  • cancer

20. what evidence is against dopamine?

  • Vaughn Bell- "Kim Kardashian of neurotransmitters " as its fashionable to blame dopamine for addictions
  • all correct
  • Liberzon et al-PTSD in war veterans when hearing combat sounds