7. What is one of the chronic stress responses most commonly known as?
Autonomic nervous system
8. A long period of stress leads to
A chronic stress response
An acute stress response
9. What are the effects of sympathetic nervous system
serosis of the liver
increased heart rate, breathing rate, sweating and trembling
10. What do all the letters stand for in the HPA axis
H-Hippocampus P-pituatory A-Adrenala Medulla
H- hypothalamus P-pituatory A-Adrenal Medulla
H-Hypothalamus P-Pituatory A-Amygdala
H-Hippocampus P- pituatory A-Amygdala
11. what evidence is against dopamine?
Liberzon et al-PTSD in war veterans when hearing combat sounds
Vaughn Bell- "Kim Kardashian of neurotransmitters " as its fashionable to blame dopamine for addictions
12. What is secreted by the pituatory gland
13. Chronic stress responses
Prenatal stress-cortisol crosses over the placenta. Thomas O'conner et al - 75 children aged over 10 showed increased cortisol levels if mothers experienced stress during pregnancy
cortisol-regulates the immune system and central nervous system
Effects on health-Immunosupression- Immune system shuts down. Effects on memory-cortisol impairs memory Sabrina Kuhlmann administered cortisol to women who were asked to recall 30 words and they struggled to remember.
14. what are the effects of adrenaline in the blood?
increased oxygen and glucose supply in the brain
increased blood pressure
15. What are the acute stress responses
release of adrenaline
fight or flight, link to evolution, SAM system , effects on the heart
"Tend or befriend"
Fight or fight, evolutionary,
16. Whats Griffiths 6 characteristics of addiction?
Salience-most important thing is the addiction, mood modification-behaviours change when the addictive substance alters the mood pathway, tolerance-take more of the substance to get desired effect,withdrawal symptoms, conflict and relapse
Conflict, mood swings, hallucinations.
17. The neurotransmitter responsible for activating organs?
18. Studies to support dopamine and link to addictions
Joutsa et al-gambling causes increased dopamine levels
James Olds and Milner-placed electrode in rats head and stimulated it each time they entered an area of the cage.
Volkow et al-addiction causes changes in the frontal cortex. cocaine addicts for example show abnormalities in their frontal cortex
19. HANS selye gas model components
Alarm, Resistance, Exhaustion
Alertness, Releavation, Ending
Alertness, Rendering, Exhaustion
Alarm, Relevation, Exhaustion
20. What is supporting evidence for the acute stress response?
Shelley Taylor et al - Females react to stress differently as the "Tend and Befriend hypothesis" shows that women will nurture young (tend) and make social interactions (befriend) when they are stressed.
Jonathon Leor et al-Northridge california earthquake links to cardiovascular disorders. Cardiomyopathy is a condition arising from traumatic experience that is commonly mistaken for a heart attack.
Lieu et al-Ill people are more stressed than healthy people
Joel Dismdale - Cannot blame stress for the heart disorders as there are other factors contributing to this such as high cholestrol.