6. The neurotransmitter responsible for activating organs?
7. What does a sudden stressor lead to?
An acute stress response
a chronic stress response
A heart attack
8. Chronic stress responses
cortisol-regulates the immune system and central nervous system
Effects on health-Immunosupression- Immune system shuts down. Effects on memory-cortisol impairs memory Sabrina Kuhlmann administered cortisol to women who were asked to recall 30 words and they struggled to remember.
Prenatal stress-cortisol crosses over the placenta. Thomas O'conner et al - 75 children aged over 10 showed increased cortisol levels if mothers experienced stress during pregnancy
9. What is supporting evidence for the acute stress response?
Jonathon Leor et al-Northridge california earthquake links to cardiovascular disorders. Cardiomyopathy is a condition arising from traumatic experience that is commonly mistaken for a heart attack.
Joel Dismdale - Cannot blame stress for the heart disorders as there are other factors contributing to this such as high cholestrol.
Lieu et al-Ill people are more stressed than healthy people
Shelley Taylor et al - Females react to stress differently as the "Tend and Befriend hypothesis" shows that women will nurture young (tend) and make social interactions (befriend) when they are stressed.
10. What do all the letters stand for in the HPA axis
H-Hypothalamus P-Pituatory A-Amygdala
H-Hippocampus P-pituatory A-Adrenala Medulla
H- hypothalamus P-pituatory A-Adrenal Medulla
H-Hippocampus P- pituatory A-Amygdala
11. what evidence is against dopamine?
Vaughn Bell- "Kim Kardashian of neurotransmitters " as its fashionable to blame dopamine for addictions
Liberzon et al-PTSD in war veterans when hearing combat sounds
12. What are the acute stress responses
fight or flight, link to evolution, SAM system , effects on the heart
Fight or fight, evolutionary,
"Tend or befriend"
release of adrenaline
13. Whats Griffiths 6 characteristics of addiction?
Salience-most important thing is the addiction, mood modification-behaviours change when the addictive substance alters the mood pathway, tolerance-take more of the substance to get desired effect,withdrawal symptoms, conflict and relapse
Conflict, mood swings, hallucinations.
14. Studies to support dopamine and link to addictions
Joutsa et al-gambling causes increased dopamine levels
Volkow et al-addiction causes changes in the frontal cortex. cocaine addicts for example show abnormalities in their frontal cortex
James Olds and Milner-placed electrode in rats head and stimulated it each time they entered an area of the cage.
15. What is secreted by the pituatory gland
16. A strength of the chronic stress response?
Social Support-Seltzer-Girls 7-12 had contact with mums after a traumatic experience which showed increased oxytocin and decreased cortisol levels.
Evans-SIGA protects against infection when giving talks but during long term stress the SIGA decreases.
Two effects of stress- Up Regulation (ST stress) and down regulation (LT stress) (decreased efficiency)
17. what are issues with the stress response
Nestor lopez duran et al-Variation in cortisol in children in stressful situations and boys have a greater response to the stressors.
Miller et al- lack of longitudinal studies. so more research should be done.
cause and effect of cortisol and illness as eating, sleeping, alcohol, caffeine all increase cortisol levels
18. What is one of the chronic stress responses most commonly known as?
Autonomic nervous system
19. Once the SNS is activated the SAM sends neurons to which part of the brain
20. what are the effects of adrenaline in the blood?