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1. Chronic stress responses

  • All correct
  • Prenatal stress-cortisol crosses over the placenta. Thomas O'conner et al - 75 children aged over 10 showed increased cortisol levels if mothers experienced stress during pregnancy
  • cortisol-regulates the immune system and central nervous system
  • Effects on health-Immunosupression- Immune system shuts down. Effects on memory-cortisol impairs memory Sabrina Kuhlmann administered cortisol to women who were asked to recall 30 words and they struggled to remember.
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2. What is supporting evidence for the acute stress response?

  • Jonathon Leor et al-Northridge california earthquake links to cardiovascular disorders. Cardiomyopathy is a condition arising from traumatic experience that is commonly mistaken for a heart attack.
  • Shelley Taylor et al - Females react to stress differently as the "Tend and Befriend hypothesis" shows that women will nurture young (tend) and make social interactions (befriend) when they are stressed.
  • Joel Dismdale - Cannot blame stress for the heart disorders as there are other factors contributing to this such as high cholestrol.
  • Lieu et al-Ill people are more stressed than healthy people

3. What do all the letters stand for in the HPA axis

  • H- hypothalamus P-pituatory A-Adrenal Medulla
  • H-Hippocampus P-pituatory A-Adrenala Medulla
  • H-Hippocampus P- pituatory A-Amygdala
  • H-Hypothalamus P-Pituatory A-Amygdala

4. What are the effects of sympathetic nervous system

  • cancer
  • increased heart rate, breathing rate, sweating and trembling
  • cardiovascular disorder
  • serosis of the liver

5. what are issues with the stress response

  • Nestor lopez duran et al-Variation in cortisol in children in stressful situations and boys have a greater response to the stressors.
  • cause and effect of cortisol and illness as eating, sleeping, alcohol, caffeine all increase cortisol levels
  • all correct
  • Miller et al- lack of longitudinal studies. so more research should be done.


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