Stress

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What study is used to show how work can cause Stress?
Johansson et al - Swedish Saw Mill
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What is the background for work-related stress?
Daily pressures of work can consist of a lot of stressors, including...; this is generally caused when pressures don't suit employee- leads to both poor mental & psych health if maintained for long time. Costs businesses a lot in high absenteeism too
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What was the sample of Johansson's study?
24 Workers at Saw Mill: 10 Cleaners (low risk, control), 14 finishers (high risk experimental group)
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What was the method of Johansson's study?
5 urine samples a day, heart rate and blood pressure measured, self report questionnaire on mood and coffee and nicotine intake
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What were the findings of Johansson's study?
High risk group's 1st urine sample was twice as high as baseline and continued to increase throughout the day. Felt more rushed and irritated, higher absenteeism, higher intake of coffee and nicotine.
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What was the conclusion of Johansson's study?
Finishers experienced high stress due to isolation, repetitive work, absence of control and responsibility of setting wage for the whole factory
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What study is used to show how daily hassles cause stress?
Kanner et al - Daily Hassles
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What is the background for how daily hassles cause stress?
H&R created SRRS from responses of nearly 400 Ps who rated 43 LE in terms of readjustment required. Shows the importance of life events, but daily hassles & uplifts ignored. Hassles=any minor inconveniences - if not balanced with uplifts=stress.
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What is the daily hassles and uplifts scale?
Consists of 117 hassles (e.g. losing things, physical appearance) and 135 uplifts (e.g. weather, promotion, eating out). Participants asked to circle items on both scales they had experienced the previous month and rate the severity and frequency
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What was the aim of Kanner's study?
to compare the SRRS and the daily hassles and uplifts scale, and link to illness.
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What was the sample of Kanner's study?
100 mainly white Californians
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What was the method of Kanner's study?
Longitudinal study lasting 10 months: H&U scale, Hopkins Symptom Checklist and Bradburn Morale Scale every month for 9 months; SRRS after 10 months.
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What were the findings of Kanner's study?
Hassles were consistent from month to month for all Ps. For men, LE correlated positively for hassles but negatively for uplifts, For women, LE correlated positively for both. Hassle freq correlated positively with the psych symptoms on the HSCL
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What was the conclusion of Kanner's study?
Hassles are a more powerful predictor of psychological symptoms than life events as the hassles contributed to psych symptoms whatever LE had happened; they occur more often so build up to cause stress.
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What study is used to show how lack of control can cause stress?
Geer and Maisel
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What is the background to lack of control causing stress?
lack or control (or perceived) may be contributing factor: support from Johansson and Aronsson's findings that in early days of computing one of main stressors was anticipated breakdown which the individual worker had no control over. (CONTINUED)
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What is the background to lack of control causing stress?
Another related theory=unpredictability causes it. Also supported by J&A which found that workers felt pressured in am because concerned about a breakdown occurring in the pm. Lack of control and unpredictability difficult to disentangle (confound)
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What was the aim of Geer and Maisel?
To try and disentangle the prediction-control confound by seeing if perceived control over something aversive reduces stress.
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What was the sample of Geer and Maisel?
60 undergraduates at New York University
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What were the 3 groups in Geer and Maisel?
1) 'Predictability' group - told what to expect (timings, photos, noise) but had no control over it 2) 'Control' group - no control, no idea what to expect. 3) Control group -had control, button to press to remove photos &also knew what to expect
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What was the method of Geer and Maisel?
Ps shown photos of dead car crash victims, measured stress by Galvanic skin response and ECG.
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What were the findings of Geer and Maisel?
Predictability group = most stressed during onset of tone. During photos, predictability and no control group showed much higher levels of emotional stress than control group (even though, on average, the photos shown for same amount of time)
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What was the conclusion of Geer and Maisel?
Prediction doesn't reduce effect of stressor, while control reduces the impact of the stressor; suggests effects of control are not due to control& prediction being confounded -it's clear that control over aversive stimuli reduces the impact of it.
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How can stress be measured physiologically?
Stress can increase various bodily processes to facilitate the 'fight or flight' response in humans, e.g. adrenaline, heart rate, etc.. Autonomic response that can be detected using various physiologically measures (e.g. urine&saliva tests, GSR)
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What is the Galvanic Skin Response (GSR)?
Measures electric current conducted by skin which varies by moisture; works by placing device on fingers which measures electrical resistance between 2 points by sending small electrical current along skin surface. Can be used for stress due to sweat
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How can stress be measured by self-report?
Self-report=any method whereby ask Ps about their beliefs, opinions, attitudes,etc.. Benefits=in-depth insight into how stressors are perceived& both qual and quant data.
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Social Readjustment Rating Scale: how was it created?
Created by Holmes and Rahe; asked nearly 400 Ps to rate 43 life events in terms of readjustment required. Marriage given arbitrary unit of 50. From this all events given Life Change Unit.
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Social Readjustment Rating Scale: how does it work?
Used by participant adding up the scores of all events experienced over previous 12 months. Scores: 150 or less = 30% of suffering from stress, 150-299 = 50% chance, 300 or more = 80% chance.
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Holmes and Rahe study?
Tested SRRS on 2,500 American Sailors. Asked to complete SRRS for previous 6 months, then over following 6 month tour of duty health records kept to make correlation. Positive correlation found, although small does show relationship.
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How can stress be measured by the combined approach?
Using only physio or SR measures to assess stress have limitations therefore research into stress should ideally combine both. JOHANSSON ET AL - SR=questionnaire (every time P tested), P= 5 urine samples, heart rate, blood pressure.
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What would the cognitive approach assume about managing stress?
It would assume that stress is caused by faulty processing of information and so should therefore be managed by cognitive reconstruction.
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What study is used to show how stress can be managed cognitively?
Meichenbaum
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What is Stress Inoculation Therapy?
SIT was an early precursor to cognitive behavioural therapy, developed by Meichenbaum to replace negative thoughts with more positive ones.
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What are the 3 stages of SIT?
1) Conceptualisation - therapist tries to understand client's experience and cognitions towards stressor. 2) Skills training and rehearsal - taught various coping techniques, e.g. relaxation. 3) Application- apply to stressor, develop confidence
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What was the aim of Meichenbaum's study?
to test the effectiveness of the cognitive method of SIT on managing stress
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What was the sample of Meichenbaum's study?
21 students who responded to an advert for anxiety treatment
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What was the method of Meichenbaum's study?
All tested using an anxiety questionnaire then allocated to group (matched on gender and anxiety levels): G1-SIT G2-systematic desensitisation, G3- control group (told on waiting list)
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What were the findings of Meichenbaum's study?
SIT group showed the most improvement on test of anxiety levels, and reported improvements by Ps. Although, G2 also showed big improvements.
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What was the conclusion of Meichenbaum's study?
SIT is an effective way of reducing anxiety in students who are prone in test situations. More effective than other behavioural techniques as it adds a cognitive component to the therapy.
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What would the behavioural perspective assume about managing stress?
Assumes that we learn all behaviour (through operant or classical conditioning or SLT) &therefore would assume that by giving audible or visual feedback on the state of the body, &rewarding for reducing stress, people will repeat to reduce stress.
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What study is used to show how stress can be managed behaviourally?
Budzynski
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What is biofeedback?
Technique that trains people to improve their health by controlling certain bodily functions. Translates electrical signals in muscles to form a patient can detect. Budzynski-patients with tension headaches. Relaxing muscles=reduced headaches(stress)
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What was the aim of Budzynski's study?
to see if biofeedback is an effective way of reducing tension headaches (associated with stress)
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What was the sample of Budzynski's study?
18 Ps who replied to an advert in newspaper, no other explanation for their headaches.
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What was the method of Budzynski's study?
Independent measures, random allocation to 3 groups: 1) Biofeedback&relaxations, told slow clicks=less tension. 2)relaxation with pseudo-feeback 3) told on waiting list. All Ps kept record of headaches for 2 weeks.
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What were the findings of Budzynski's study?
Group 1's reported headaches dropped significantly below their baseline and decreased much more than other groups. Also had biggest decrease in drug usage.
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What was the conclusion of Budzynski's study?
Biofeedback is an effective way at training patients to relax and reduce their tension headaches, so can be seen as an effective method of stress management.
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What would the social approach assume about stress management?
Social approach emphasises the need for support from others. Many forms of behaviour treatments use group therapy/support sessions, better as more readily available. Stress management emphasises social support in coping with stressful situations.
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What do Cohen and Willis argue are the 4 types of social support needed?
1. Instrumental Support- practical support, e.g. childcare. 2. Informational Support- advice. 3. Esteem support- emotional support (making you feel loved) 4. Social Companionship- general interaction with others, not just functional relationships
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What study is used to show how stress can be managed socially?
Waxler-Morrison
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What evidence is there that stress management can help cancer patients?
Sklar and Anisman reviewed a large body of literature and concluded that cancer growth is amplified by stress.
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What was the aim of Waxler-Morrison's study?
to see how a woman's social relationships influence her response to breast cancer and survival
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What was the sample of Waxler-Morrison's study?
133 Canadian women under 55 years old (pre-menopausal), all diagnosed with breast cancer
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What was the method of Waxler-Morrison's study?
IMD, quasi-experiment. Data gathered from medical records and self-report about their lives (mainly questionnaires but some interviews). Given psychometric test that combined martial status, contact with friends and family and church membership.
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What were the findings of Waxler-Morrison's study?
6 main aspects most closely associated with survival: Marital status, support from friends, contact with friends, employment, social network and total support. Other important factors: supportive spouses and practical help.
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What was the conclusion of Waxler-Morrison's study?
The more social networks and support, the higher the survival rate of women with breast cancer, although the stage of cancer (diagnosis) was the main factor.
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