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Johansson, Kanner, Geer & Meisel
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Johansson - Aim
Look at the physiological and psychological responses to work-placed stress
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Johansson - Sample
24 Swedish sawmill workers - 14 high-stress jobs, 10 low-stress/control (e.g. cleaners)
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Johansson - Method
Urine samples and body temperature taken before study - baseline - and 4x during work day. Also self-reports to measure mood, alertness, caffiene & nicotine intake
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Johansson - Findings and conc.
High- stress adrenaline levels increased through day (low stress decreased), also had higher baseline level. High risk felt more rushed, isolated, lower well-being.
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Kanner - Aim
To compare life events and daily hassles/uplifts as predictors of stress-related illness
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Kanner - Sample
100 Californians, mostly white and protestant
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Kanner - Method
Completed 1 hassles/uplifts rater every day for 9 months, one life events rater after 10 months and The Hopkins Symptom Checklist and the Bradburn Moral scale every month for nine months.
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Kanner - Findings and conc.
Daily hassles was a better predictor than life events. Life events for men correlated positively with Hassles and negatively with uplifts. For women, both correlated positively with life events. More hassles = more symptoms.
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Geer and Maisel - Aim
To look at actual and perceived control as causes of stress
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Geer and Maisel - Sample
60 psychology students from NY university
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Geer and Maisel - Conditions
1: Full control over timings, button to press to terminate picture, warning beep before each pic. 2: Knew the timings but had no control. No button. Warning beep before each pic. 3: No control over timings. No button. Pictures and beeps all random.
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Geer and Maisel - Method
Each alone in sound-proof room. GSR and ECG calibrated for 5mins to get baseline. Instructions over intercom. GSR taken before tone, at end of tone, and at end of picture.
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Geer and Maisel - Findings and conc.
ECGs disregarded as inaccurate. Full control = least stress. Knew timings - Most stress.
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Meichenbaum, Waxler and Morrison, Budynski
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Budynski - Aim
See if biofeedback actually helped tension headaches or if it was just placebo
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Budynski - Sample
18 participants. 2 male, 16 female. Responded to a newspaper advert. All screened by telephone, psychological and medical exams - no other cause for the headaches
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Budynski - Conditions
A - real biofeedback training with relaxation techniques. B - Biofeedback training with fake feedback. C - Told they were on a waiting list.
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Budynski - Method
Participants trained in biofeedback in a lab. EEG took muscle tension measurements. Psychometric testing looked at depression levels. Questionnaires on their headaches. All kept a 2 week diary of their headaches.
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Budynski - Findings and conc.
After 3 months - A's muscle tension significantly lowered. Reported headaches also fell significantly for A.
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Waxler and Morrison - Aim
Look at whether social support reduces effects of breast cancer by reducing stress.
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Waxler and Morrison - Sample
133 women from Vancouver, under 55 years old, all diagnosed with breast cancer and sent to a help clinic.
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Waxler and Morrison - Method
Medical records examined for their progress, life expectancy, etc, All sent questionnaires in the post. On education, responsibilites (e.g. children), contact with friends and perceived support
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Waxler and Morrison - Findings and conc.
6 main factors of social support that helped breast cancer: marital status, friend support, total support, contact with friends, social networks
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Meichenbaum - Aim
Compare standard behaviour methods (SD) with cognitive ones (SIT) in identifying and changing mental processes through stress
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Meichenbaum - Sample
21 students aged 17-25. Responded to advert for treating test anxiety.
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Meichenbaum - Conditions
3 groups- Stress Inoculation Therapy- 8 therapy sessions, positive statements and relaxation methods. Standard Desensitisation- 8 therapy sessions, progressive relaxation methods. Control- on a waiting list
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Meichenbaum - Method
Field experiment and blind study. Matched pairs using gender. Looked at anxiety questionnaires and grade averages before and after treatment.
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Meichenbaum - Findings and conc.
SIT grades improved the most. Both SIT and SD improved more that control and improved anxiety levels but SIT was better there too.
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Self-report, Physiological, Combined
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Geer and Maisel
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