Stratigies for memory improvement

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Rehersing
Repition of material which allows it to pass into LTM
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Elaborate rehersal
giving meaning to the things you learn, semantic processing or the PQRST method
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Self-reference
makes information personally relevant
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Self-reference Rogers
suggests this is effective and avoids confusion
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Chunking
Miller
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Miller
Capacity of STM, 7 +- 2 items unless chunking into meaningfull groups
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Improve recall of information : organisation of material : Baddeley
Organisation of material is easier to recall
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Baddeley
PPTS given random information automatically started to organise it and PPTS instructed to organise material had better recall
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Organisation of Material : Bower and Clark
Compared PPTS and asked to memorise 12 lists of unrelated words using a story and a control group who didnt organise words using a story
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Organisation of Material : Bower and Clark : Found that
recall to be 90% when using a story and 10% in a control group
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Conceptual hierarchy : Bower
use of hierarchys on recall, control group saw words presented randomly & experimental group saw words presented into conceptual hierarchies
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Conceptual hierarchy : Bower : Found
experimental group recalled significantly more words than the control group
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Context Dependant Retrieval : Tulving and Thompson
Memories are encoded with context and we experience the learning. Therefore context becomes a retrival cue. If retrival cue is not present then we can forget information
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Context dependant Retrival : Support : Smith
PPTS learn 30 words while sitting in a distinct basement room and following day tested PPTS in the same basement while other group had different furnashings and atmosphere and other group upstairs but to imagine the basement room
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Context dependant Retrival : Support : Smith : Found
Average recall of basement group 18 items, %th floor = 12 items and 3rd goup = 17 items
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Context dependant Retrival : Support : Smith : Evaluation
Suggests the environment has to be different to have a significant effect on recall, such as imaging the setting can improve recall
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Method of Loci
Identify a set of familiar places and imagine walking through and convert each item to what you want to remember into an image and menatlly place it in the location. When recall items you imagine the location as these act as retrival cues because you
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Ethical issues : Mnemonics
when studying the effects of mnemonics these include sensitivity with learning styles and how people feel when they dont do well because youre assessing people
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Ethical issues : informed consent
Need to gain informed consent and make sure they are aware they have the right to withdraw, provide confidentiality and individual differences must be accounted for
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Evaluation : Memory Improvement
Right method needs to be used for the information you need to learn
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Evaluation : Memory Improvement
Experimental method and lists of words lowering ecological validity which may not tell you what stratigies are useful in everyday life.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Elaborate rehersal

Back

giving meaning to the things you learn, semantic processing or the PQRST method

Card 3

Front

Self-reference

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Self-reference Rogers

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Chunking

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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