STM and LTM

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What is duration?
How long a memory lasts
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What is capacity?
How much can be held in memory
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What is encoding?
Transferring information into code creating a 'trace'
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What is STM's capacity and duration?
Limited
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What is LTM's capacity and duration?
Unlimited capacity and theoretically perminant
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Who investigated STM?
Peterson and Peterson (duration) Jacobs (capacity)
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What was Peterson and Petersons method?
Participants were shown nonsense trigram (3 random letters) and asked to recall them up to 18 seconds after. During the pause they were asked to count down in threes from a given number as a 'interferance task'
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What did Peterson and Peterson find?
After 3 seconds PP's could remeber 80% - after 18 seconds only 10% of trigrams were recalled correctly
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What does Peterson and Petersons experiment suggest?
That if rehearsal is prevented very little can be stored in the STM and the longer it is prevented the less we remember
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Who investigated LTM?
Bahrick et al.
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What did Bahrick do?
He tested very long memory by asked 392 people to list their ex-classmates in a FREE RECALL test. Then shown pictures amd asked to recall names in a PHOTO RECOGNIION TEST. or given names and asked to match them in a NAME RECOGNITION TEST
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What were Bahricks results?
Within 15 years of leaving school PP could recognise 90% of names and faces. 60% accurate with free recall. After 30 years free recall dropped to 30% and after 48 years name recognition was 80% and photo recognition 40%
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What do bahricks results suggest?
VLTM is a real life setting - recognition is better than recall, SO there may be a HUGE store but cannot always ACCESS it - but can with help
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What did Miller do?
Evaluated research ininto the capacity of STM - Millers MAGIC 7
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What did Miller find?
He found that capacity of STM is 7 (plus or minus two), and suggested that we use chucking to combine individual letters into meaningful units (can hold 7 chuncks increasing capacity of STM)
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What did Jacobs study?
The capacity of STM
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What was Jacons method?
PP presented with a string ofletters or numbers and had to repeat them in the same order (string increased until they couldn't remember anymore)
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What did Jacob find?
PP could rememeber 9 DIGITS and 7 LETTERS and capacity was INCREASED with AGE
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What was jacobs conclusion?
STM had a limited capacity of 5-9 items but with individual difference due to increase in capacity or techniques such as chunking. Digits may be EASIER to remember as there's only 10 diff, compaired to 26 letters
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Who conducted a study on STM and encoding?
Baddeley (1966)
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What was Baddeleys method?
GIven 4 sets of words: semantically similar and dissimilar. Acoustically similar and dissimilar. Experiment used an INDEPENDENT groups design (immediate recall or after 20 minutes)
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Results of Baddeleys study?
Couldn't recall acoustically similar words straight away (STM) After 20 minute duration couldn't recall semantically similar words
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What does Baddeleys research suggest?
STM is more likely to rely on acoustic and LTM on semantic encoding
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Card 2

Front

What is capacity?

Back

How much can be held in memory

Card 3

Front

What is encoding?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is STM's capacity and duration?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is LTM's capacity and duration?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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