Staying Healthy

Topics covered include: Malaria, Cancers, The Fight Against Illness and Treatments and Trials.

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What is the name of the protazoan that causes Malaria?
Plasmodium.
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Which vector carries Plasmodium?
Mosquitoes.
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What is meant by the term vector?
An organism that carries the disease and can pass it on, but is not affected by the disease.
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How is malaria transmitted to humans?
Via mosquito bites.
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What is Plasmodium?
Plasmodium is a parasite.
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What is meant by the term parasite?
A parasite is an organism that feeds on another living organism while causing it harm.
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What do Plasmodium feed on?
Human red blood cells.
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Knowledge of what has helped to prevent the spread of Malaria and develop new treatments?
The life cycle of the mosquito.
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Which activity increases the risk of lung cancer.
Smoking.
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How can skin cancer be prevented?
Wearing sunscreen.
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What happens to benign tumour cells and what is an example of a benign tumour?
Benign tumour cells divide slowly and are harmless. An example of a benign tumour cell is a wart
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How do Pathogens produce symptoms of an infectious disease?
They damage the body's cells or produce toxins inside the body.
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How does the body protect itself from pathogens?
The body produces antibodies which lock onto antigens on the surface of pathogens. This kills the pathogens.
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Why is a specific antibody needed for each pathogen?
A specific antibody is needed for each pathogen because each pathogen has a different antigen.
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How can a person develop natural active immunity?
If the person is exposed to the pathogen and develops the disease but becomes immune to the disease.
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How can a person develop artificial active immunity?
If the person is vaccinated with a weakened form of the pathogen and becomes immune to the disease through primary immune responses.
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How can a person develop natural passive immunity?
If the antibodies produced for an infectious pathogen are passed onto the person from another person.
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How can a person develop artificial passive immunity?
If the person is vaccinated with the antibodies for an infectious pathogen.
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How do pathogens provide immunity?
A dead or weakened pathogen that carries antigens is put into the body. The white blood cells produce the specific antibodies for the antigens.
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How do memory cells retain immunity?
Memory cells that are produced during the process of immunity remain in the body and provide long lasting immunity.
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of active and passive immunity?
Active immunity takes a while to work, but lasts for a long time. Passive immunity is fast acting, but doesn't last for very long.
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Why doesn't passive immunity last for very long?
Passive immunity doesn't last for very long because memory cells are not created in the process of becoming immune.
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Why does active immunity take longer to work?
Active immunity requires the antibodies to be produced by the body while in active immunity, the antibodies have been produced already.
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What is used to treat bacteria and fungi?
Antibiotic drugs.
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What is used to treat viruses?
Antiviral drugs.
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What do antibiotic drugs do?
Antibiotic drugs destroy pathogens.
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What do antiviral drugs do?
Antiviral drugs slow down the development of the pathogen.
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What are the risks of excessive use of antibiotics?
Some bacterium have developed resistance to the aniotbiotcs.
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Why do people object to animal testing of drugs?
Testing drugs on animals can cause harm to them.
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What is a placebo?
A placebo is a harmless pill used in trials to assess the affects of a new drug.
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What is a blind trial?
A drug trail whereby the patient doesn't know whether they are receiving a real drug or placebo.
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What is a double blind trial?
A drug trial whereby neither the patient nor the doctor know whether they are receiving a real drug or placebo.
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Why are double blind and blind trials used?
They are used to prevent the patient or doctors from assuming that treatment is working when it actually isn't.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Which vector carries Plasmodium?

Back

Mosquitoes.

Card 3

Front

What is meant by the term vector?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How is malaria transmitted to humans?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is Plasmodium?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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