# Stats & Mech A level Interactive Glossary

minus the large data set, i've got other ones for that.

5.0 / 5

- Created by: ItsAlevelTime
- Created on: 27-12-18 05:11

population

whole set of items of interest

1 of 132

cencus

an observation or measure of every member of a population

2 of 132

sample

a selection of observations taken form a subset of the population which is used to find out info about the population as a whole

3 of 132

sampling units

the individual units of a population

4 of 132

sampling frame

a list/collection of all the sampling units

5 of 132

simple random sample

a sample in which each sampling unit in the sampling frame has an equal chance of being selected

6 of 132

systematic smapling

the sampling element is chosen at regular intervals from an ordered list

7 of 132

stratified sampling

sampling in which the population is divided into mutually exclusive strata and a random sample is taken in each strata

8 of 132

quota sampling

an interviewer selects a sample which reflects the strata of the whole population

9 of 132

opportunity sampling / convenience sampling

taking a sample from the people available at the time and location of the study and fit the criteria looked for

10 of 132

quantitate data

data with numerical observations

11 of 132

qualitative data

data with non-numerical observations

12 of 132

continuous data

a variable that can take any value

13 of 132

discrete data

data that can only take specific values

14 of 132

midpoint of a grouped frequency table

the average of the class boundaries

15 of 132

the class width of a grouped frequency table

the difference between the upper and the lower boundary

16 of 132

a measure of location

a single value which describes a position in the data set

17 of 132

measure of central tendency

a measure of location which describes the centre of the data

18 of 132

lower quartile

the 25% percentile

19 of 132

upper quartile

the 75% percentile

20 of 132

interpolation

estimating the mean, quartiles and percentiles inside a known data range.

21 of 132

evenly distributed data

(what is assumed when interpolating) :(

22 of 132

measure of spread/dispersion/variation

a measure of how spread out the data is (IQR and range)

23 of 132

IQR (inter-quartile range)

Q3 - Q1

24 of 132

range

highest value - lowest value

25 of 132

inter-percentile range

the difference between two different percentiles

26 of 132

varience

a measure used to display the spread of the data (also it's standard dev squared)

27 of 132

standard deviation

the square root of varience

28 of 132

coding

a method of simplifying statistical calculations. each value is coded to make a new set, the coded measures of spread were then un-coded to get the real values.

29 of 132

outlier

an extreme value that lies outside the overall pattern of the data( anything between Q1 - IQR & Q3 + IQR

30 of 132

cleaning the data

removal of the anomalies from the data

31 of 132

box plot

a diagram representing the Q1, Q2, Q3, min, max and any outliers

32 of 132

cumulative frequency diagram

a diagram used to estimate medians, quartiles and percentages in continuous data

33 of 132

histograms

a chart for grouped continuous data

34 of 132

frequency density

frequency / class width

35 of 132

frequency polygon

the chart made when the tops of the histogram are joined by lines.

36 of 132

bivariate data

data which has pairs of values for two variables

37 of 132

independent/explanatory variable

usually plotted on the x-axis, this variable is the variable being measured.

38 of 132

dependent/response variable

usually plotted on the y-axis, this variable is the variable being measured

39 of 132

correlation

a description of the nature of the linear relationship in the bivariate data

40 of 132

least squares regression line (called the regression line)

one type of line of best fit, minimises the sum of the squares of the distances from the line to the points

41 of 132

extrapolation

predicting outside the given range of data. (less reliable)

42 of 132

experiment

repeated process that gives rise to a number of outcomes

43 of 132

event

a collection of one or more outcomes

44 of 132

sample space

a set of all possible outcomes

45 of 132

impossible events

events with 0 probability of occuring

46 of 132

certain events

events with a 1 probability of occurring

47 of 132

venn diagram

diagram to show the events graphically

48 of 132

the rectangle in Venn diagrams

the sample space S

49 of 132

intersection of venn diagram

both events happen

50 of 132

union of A and B

either A or B or both A & B

51 of 132

compliment

everything but just A (shown as A')

52 of 132

mutually exclusive

events that have no outcomes in common (no overlap on the venn). meaning P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B)

53 of 132

independant events

the probability of one happening is independant of the other happening. Meaning P(A and B) = P(A) x P(B)

54 of 132

tree diagram

a representation of the outcomes of two or more events happening in succession

55 of 132

random variable

variable who's value depends on the outcome of a random event

56 of 132

the probability distribution

full description of the probability of any outcome in the sample space

57 of 132

probability mass function

P(X=x) = 1/6

58 of 132

discrete uniform distribution

all the probabilities are the same

59 of 132

binomial distribution

distribution of success within a set number of trials and a fixed probability of success X~B(n,p)

60 of 132

index (binomial)

n, the number of trials

61 of 132

parameter (binomial)

p, the probability

62 of 132

cumulative probability function

the sum of all the induvigual probabilities up to and including a number of success ect. (basically the cdf function)

63 of 132

population parameter

the parameter being tested (eg. p in binomial)

64 of 132

test statistic

the result/conclusion of the test on the sample of the population

65 of 132

null hypothesis

H0, the hypothesis that you assume is correct

66 of 132

alternative hypothesis

H1, tells you about the parameter being tested if your assumption is shown to be wrong

67 of 132

one tailed tests

hypothesis tests with alternative hypothesis in the form p> and p<

68 of 132

two tailed tests

hypothesis testing with alternative hypothesis in the form p is not equal to

69 of 132

significance level

a given threshold in which the null hypothesis can be rejected

70 of 132

critical regions

a region where the probability distribution which if the test statistic falls in it, causes you to reject the null hypothesis

71 of 132

critical value

the first value to fall inside the critical region

72 of 132

actual significance level

the probability of incorrectly rejecting the null hypothesis

73 of 132

p-value

probability

74 of 132

particle

dimensions of this object are negligible, mass in concentrated at a single point, rotational forces and air resistance can be ignored

75 of 132

rod

all dimensions but more are negligible, mass in concentrated along the line, no thickness, rigid (no bending or buckling)

76 of 132

lamina

object with area but negligible thickness, mass is distributed across the surface

77 of 132

uniform body

mass is concentrated at the centre of mass at the geometrical centre of the object

78 of 132

light object

mass is negligible - treat as zero mass, tension the same at both ends of string

79 of 132

Inextensible string

no stretch under load, acceleration is the same in objects connected by a taut inextensible string

80 of 132

smooth surface

no friction between the surface and object on it

81 of 132

rough surface

objects in contact with the surface experience a frictional force if they are moving

82 of 132

wire

rigid thin wire which is treated as one dimensional

83 of 132

smooth and light pulley

pulley has no mass and tension is the same on either side of the pulley

84 of 132

bead

particle with a hole in it to thread wire/thread, moves freely along the string, tension is the same on both sides of the bead

85 of 132

peg

a support from which a body can be suspended or rested

86 of 132

air resistance

resistance experienced by an object moving through air

87 of 132

gravity

force of attraction between all things, earth's gravity is uniform and acts vertically downwards

88 of 132

g

acceleration due to gravity g=9.8m/s/s

89 of 132

SI units

The international system of units has its base SI units: Mass(kg); length(m); time(s) ect.

90 of 132

derived SI units

such as acceleration's unit m/s/s

91 of 132

weight

a force which acts downwards from an object and is caused by gravity

92 of 132

normal reaction

the force which acts perpendicular to the surface caused by contact with the surface

93 of 132

friction

a force which opposes the motion between two rough surfaces

94 of 132

tensions

a force produced when an object is pulled on by a string

95 of 132

thrust/compression

force acting on an object caused by pushing or combustion.

96 of 132

bouyancy

the upward force of a body that allows it to float or rise when submerged/floating

97 of 132

air resistance

a force opposing motion caused by air molecules

98 of 132

constant acceleration formula/ suvat/ kinematics formula

5 formula that calculate u,v,a,s,t when one or more is missing

99 of 132

time of flight

the time from the projection (throw) to it hitting the ground

100 of 132

initial speed

is also called speed of projection (u)

101 of 132

Newton's 1st law

An object at rest will remain at rest and an object with constant velocity will continue that motion unless an external force acts on the system, making it unbalanced.

102 of 132

resultant force

a force which causes an object to accelerate in the same direction as the resultant force

103 of 132

Newton's 2nd law / the equation of motion

forces needed to accelerate a particle is equal to product of mass and acceleration of the particle

104 of 132

Newton's 3rd law

for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction

105 of 132

addition formulae of two events

P(A U B) = P(A) + P(B) -P(A and B)

106 of 132

the multiplication formula for conditional probability

P(A and B)= P(B I A) x P(A)

107 of 132

normal distribution

a continuous probability distribution, symmetrical (mean=median=mode), total area under curve =1, points of inflection at u+o and u-o

108 of 132

inverse normal distribution

given a probability, the value of a can be found

109 of 132

standard normal distribution

a normal distribution with mean 0 and standard deviation 1

110 of 132

approximation of a binomial distribution using normal

when n is large and p is close to 0.5, using u=np and o=sqrt(np(1-p)

111 of 132

continuity correction

since binomial is discrete and normal is contionus, the bounds of the probabilities are rounded up/down 0.5.

112 of 132

moment

a force (Nm) that causes a turning effect on a rigid body (force x distance from pivot)

113 of 132

coplanar forces

forces that act on the same plane

114 of 132

resultant moment

the sum of the moments acting on a body

115 of 132

equlibrium

an object with zero resultant force, therefore with a resultant moment of 0Nm

116 of 132

centre of mass

the point from which the mass measured

117 of 132

the point of tilting

when the reaction at any other support is 0

118 of 132

resolving a force

finding the vertical and horizontal components of a force (all relative)

119 of 132

the component of a force

the amount of that force acting in a specific direction

120 of 132

triangle of forces

when the forces are in-equilibrium ,they can be formed into a triangle with the angles preserved

121 of 132

inclined planes

planes at an angle (forces should be resolved)

122 of 132

maximum/limiting value (friction)

the magnitude of force needs to overcome friction forces and allow movement (F (force needed) = u(coefficeint of friction) x R (normal reaction)

123 of 132

coefficient of friction

a measure of roughness

124 of 132

model of horizontal velocity

when it has a constant velocity (s=vt)

125 of 132

angle of projection

the angle above the horizontal at which the object is thrown

126 of 132

range (mechanics)

the distance along the horizontal plane the projectile travels

127 of 132

greatest height of projectile

achieved when the vertical component of its velocity is equal to 0

128 of 132

equation of trajectory

a quadratic equation which shows the parabolic nature of the motion

129 of 132

the limiting equation

when an object is just about to move, it is the maximum amount of frictional force.

130 of 132

reaction at the hinge

the force exerted on the rod by the wall

131 of 132

dot notation

short hand for differentiation with respect to time

132 of 132

## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

an observation or measure of every member of a population

#### Back

cencus

### Card 3

#### Front

a selection of observations taken form a subset of the population which is used to find out info about the population as a whole

#### Back

### Card 4

#### Front

the individual units of a population

#### Back

### Card 5

#### Front

a list/collection of all the sampling units

#### Back

## Related discussions on The Student Room

- Anyone know which old spec maths papers are equivalent to the new spec's topics? »
- Edexcel AS Maths Statistics and Mechanics 22/05/2019 Unofficial MarkScheme »
- Predicted grade boundaries for OCR MEI Further Maths Core Pure »
- Need help understanding when the null hypothesis should be rejected »
- Statistics or Mechanics? »
- Mechatronics not as good as I thought - Is unistats wrong? »
- OCR A: AS Further Mathematics: Statistics (paper 2) 16th May 2019 »
- What Exam did YOU find challenging? »
- Edexcel A-Level Maths, where are you? »
- Best Further Maths options? help »

## Similar Mathematics resources:

0.0 / 5

4.0 / 5

0.0 / 5

0.0 / 5

0.0 / 5

0.0 / 5

3.0 / 5

0.0 / 5

0.0 / 5

## Comments

No comments have yet been made