# Statistics Key Terms

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Continuous data

Data that can take any value on a continuous numerical scale.

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Discrete data

Data that can only take particular values on a continuous numerical scale.

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Bivariate data

Pairs of related variables.

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Census

A set of data that contains information about every member of a population.

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Sample

A set of data that contains information about part of a population.

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Sampling units

People or items that are to be sampled.

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Sampling frame

A list of the people or items that are to be sampled.

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Random sample

A sample that is chosen without a conscious decision.

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Stratified sample

A type of sampling where the population is split into strata that have something in common. A random sample is taken from each stratum, in proportion to the size of each statum.

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Systematic sampling

From the sampling frame, a starting point is chosen at random. Items are then chosen at regular intervals.

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Primary data

Data that is collected by the person who is going to use them.

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Secondary data

Data that has been collected by somebody else.

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Survey

The collection of data from a given population that is used to analyse a particular issue.

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Pilot survey

A small scale survey that is used to test the design and methods of a particular survey

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Questionnaire

A set of questions designed to obtain data.

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Open question

A question that suggests no answers.

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Closed question

A question that has a set of answers for the respondent to choose from.

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Class

A group used to distinguish data if it is widely sppread

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Database

An organised collection of information.

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Cumulative frequency

A running total of frequencies

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Histogram

A type of graph that show a set of data is distributed across the class intervals.

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Frequency density

The height of a bar in a histogram. It is calculated by dividing the frequency by the class width.

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Positive skewness

Where data is more concentrated towards the right hand side of a graph. The median is closer to the upper quartile.

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Negative skewness

Where data is more concentrated towards the left hand side of a graph. The median is closer to the lower quartile.

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Mode

The value that occurs most often.

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Median

The middle number in an ordered list. It can be calculated by 1/2(n+1)

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Mean

Adding up the numbers and then dividing by how many there are.

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Modal class

The class with the highest frequency.

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Range

Where the smallest value is subtracted from the largest value.

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Lower quartile

A value that splits the lower 25% of the data. Calculated by 1/4(n+1)

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Upper quartile

A value that splits the upper 25% of the data. Calculated by 3/4(n+1)

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Interquartile range

The upper quartile - the lower quartile. Sometimes shortened to 'IQR'

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Box plot

A type of graph that can display the maximum value, the minimum value, the median, the upper quartile and the lower quartile.

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Outiler

Any value that is 1.5x the IQR below the lower quartile or 1.5x the IQR above the upper quartile.

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Variance

A measure of dispersion or spread.

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Standard deviation

A measure of the dispersion of a set of data from its mean. The more spread apart the data, the higher the deviation. It is calculated as the square root of the variance.

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Correlation

A measure of the strength of the linear association between two variables.

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Negative correlation

When one variable decreases as the other increases.

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Positive correlation

When one variable increases as the other decreases.

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Causal relationship

When a change in one variable directly causes a change in another variable.

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Interpolation

When the data point that you need lies within the range of given values.

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Extrapolation

When the data point you need lies outside of the range of given values.

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Spearman's rank

A numerical measure of the correlation between two sets of data. It tells us how close the agreement is.

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General trend

The way that the data changes over time.

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Trend line

Line that shows the general trend of the data.

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Seasonal variation

A pattern that repeats. It is calculated by the actual value - the trend value.

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Moving average

An average worked out for a given number of successive observations. They are plotted at the mid-point of the time intervals they cover.

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Trial

An act of testing / doing something.

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Outcomes

The possible results of a trial.

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Event

A set of one or more successful outcomes

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Probability

A numerical measure of the chance of an event happening. Calculated by the number of successful outcomes divided by the total number of possible outcomes.

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Simulation

The imitation of the conditions of a situation by a theoretical study.

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Sample space

A list of all possible outcomes.

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Mutually exclusive

Where outcomes or events cannot happen at the same time.

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Exhaustive

Where a set of events contains all possible outcomes.

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Independent

Where the outcome of one event does not affect the outcome of the other event.

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Conditional probability

The probability of 'A' given that 'B' has already happened.

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Probability distribution

A list of all possiblle outcomes together with their probabilities.

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Discrete uniform

A type of distribution where each outcome is equally likely.

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Binominal

A type of distribution which has a fixed number of independent trials. Each trial has only two outcomes: success (p) or failure (q).

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Normal

A type of distribution that has an equal mode, median and mean. It is symmetrical about the mean.

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Control chart

A time series chart that is used for process control.

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Warning limit

A limit set at two standard deviations from the mean. (95% of data lies within 2 s.d.)

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Action limit

A limit set at three standard deviations from the mean. (99.8% of data lies within three s.d.)

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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

Data that can only take particular values on a continuous numerical scale.

#### Back

Discrete data

### Card 3

#### Front

Pairs of related variables.

#### Back

### Card 4

#### Front

A set of data that contains information about every member of a population.

#### Back

### Card 5

#### Front

A set of data that contains information about part of a population.

#### Back

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