# Statistical Testing

Statistical testing
Provides a way of determining whether hypotheses should be accepted or rejected. In psychology, they tell tell us whether differences or relationships between variables are statistically significant or have occurred by chance
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Sign test
A statistical test used to analyse the difference in scores between related items (e.g. the same participant tested twice)
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Significance
To determine whether findings have occurred by chance or not
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Sign test
A simple statistical test to test for a difference in nominal (categorical) data when the same participants have been tested in both conditions (repeated measures design)
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Probability
The accepted level of probability in psychology is 5% (p = 0.05). Even if we find a significant difference or relationship within the data, there is still up to 5% probability that it could have occurred by chance
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Calculated value
Value produced by statistical test
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Critical value
Value to be achieved for significance. Found in table of critical values, we need to know N (the number of participants), the probability level (5%) and whether the test is one-tailed or two-tailed
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S
For the sign test, the calculated value (S) has to be equal to or lower than the critical value to be significant
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

A statistical test used to analyse the difference in scores between related items (e.g. the same participant tested twice)

Sign test

### Card 3

#### Front

To determine whether findings have occurred by chance or not

### Card 4

#### Front

A simple statistical test to test for a difference in nominal (categorical) data when the same participants have been tested in both conditions (repeated measures design)

### Card 5

#### Front

The accepted level of probability in psychology is 5% (p = 0.05). Even if we find a significant difference or relationship within the data, there is still up to 5% probability that it could have occurred by chance