State crimes

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How does Green and Ward define state crime?
Green and Ward define state crime as "illegal or deviant activities perpertrated by, or with the complicity of, state agencies."
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McLaughlin identifies four categories of state crime. What are they?
1. Political crimes, e.g. corruption or censorship. 2. Crimes by security and police forces, e.g. genocide. 4. Economic crimes, e.g. official violaions of health and safety laws. 4. Social and cultural crimes, e.g. insititutional racism.
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What are the two reasons for explaining why state crime is one of the most serious forms of crime?
The power of the state enables it to commit extremely large-scale crimes with widespread victimisation and it is the state's role to define what is criminal, and to manage the criminal justice system and prosecute offenders.
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One approach to the study of state crime is throught the notion of what?
Human rights
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What is meant by human rights?
Civil rights- Such as the rights to vote, to privacy, to a fair trial or to education. Natural rights- such as rights to life, liberty and free speech.
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Herman and Schwendinger argue that we should define crime in terms of what?
Herman and Schendinger argue that we should define crime in terms of the violation of basic human rights, rather than the breaking of legal rules.
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From a human rights perspective, the state can be seen as what?
From the human rights perspective, the state can be see as the perpertator of crime and not simply as the authority that defines and punishes crime.
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According to Schwendingers, the role of a sociologist should be what in reference to human rights?
Th Schwendingers argue that the sociologist's role shuld be to defend human rights, if necessary against the state and its laws.
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The Schwendinger's view is seen as what type of criminology?
Transgressive criminology, whch oversteps the traditional boundries of criminology that are defined by the criminal law.
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How does Cohen criticise the Schwendingers?
While 'gross' violations of human rights, such as genocide are clearly crimes, other acts, such as economic exploitation, are not self-evidently criminal, even if we find them morally unacceptable.
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Although Cohen criticises the Schwendingers he nevertheless sees the issue of human rights and state crime as increasingly central both to political debate and criminology. What are the two factors that result in this?
The growing impact of the international human rights movement and the increased focus within criminology upon victims.
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What are the three stages in the 'spiral of state denial' suggested by Cohen?
Stage 1- 'It didn't happen.' But then human right organisations, victims and the media show it did happen. Stage 2- 'If it did happen, "it" is something else' The state says it is not what it looks like. Stage 3- 'It is justified'.
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Cohen draws on the work of Sykes and Matza of the neutralisation theory, in order to show what techniques do states use to justify their deviant behaviour. What are the five techniques?
1. Denial of victim 2. Denial of injury 3. Denial of responsibility 4. Condemning the condemners 5. Appeal to higher loyalty
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Kelman and Hamilton studied 'crimes of obedience' and identify three features that produce it. What are they?
1. Authorisation- When acts are ordered by those in authority 2. Routinisation- Once the crime has been committed, there is a strong pressure to turn the act into routine 3. Dehumanisation- When the enemy is portrayed as sub-human
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What does Bauman say about the Holocaust in reference to state crime?
The Holocaust in which the Nazis murdered six million people that were seen as 'sub-humans', was a product of modernity.
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Card 2

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McLaughlin identifies four categories of state crime. What are they?

Back

1. Political crimes, e.g. corruption or censorship. 2. Crimes by security and police forces, e.g. genocide. 4. Economic crimes, e.g. official violaions of health and safety laws. 4. Social and cultural crimes, e.g. insititutional racism.

Card 3

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What are the two reasons for explaining why state crime is one of the most serious forms of crime?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

One approach to the study of state crime is throught the notion of what?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is meant by human rights?

Back

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