State Crime

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What is the definition of state crime?
State crimes re crimes committed by, or on behalf of, governments or states to further their policies.
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Who thought of the 4 types of state crime?
McLaughlin
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What were the 4 types of state crime?
Political, Security Crimes, Economic, Cultural
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Give 3 examples of state crime.
Nazi Germany, Bosnian Genocide, Guantánamo Bay
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What happened in Nazi Germany?
Adolf Hitler's Nazi regime resulted in the deaths of 6 million Jews, and 5 million other minority groups such as gypsies, mentally & physically disabled people, ethnic minorities etc.
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What was the Bosnian genocide?
In the Bosnian war between the years 1992-1995, Bosnian Muslims and Croats were forced to flee their homes. Methods such as murder, ****, sexual assault, and torture were used.
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What is Guantánamo Bay, and what happened there?
Guantánamo Bay is a prison in the US, and the people there tortured the prisoners. They used a method called waterboarding; this involves putting a cloth on someone's face, & pouring water on it. This gives the prisoner a sense of drowning.
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What are the two types of human rights?
Natural Rights (what you get simply by existing, such as the right to life & freedom of speech) and Civil Rights (the rights you get as a citizen, such as the right to education & the right to vote)
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Which sociologists were interested in human rights?
The Schwendingers
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What did the Schwendingers argue?
That we should define crime in terms of violation of human rights.
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What is an evaluation point of the Schwendingers' argument?
There is limited agreement on what counts as human rights.
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Which is the main sociologist who investigated the denial of state crime?
Stanley Cohen
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What was Stanley Cohen's theory called?
The Spiral of Denial
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What were the three stages to the spiral of denial?
1) "It didn't happen" outright denial. 2) "It happened but it's not what it looks like" it was collateral damage. 3) "It happened, but we can justify it" it is part of War on Terror
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Who's theory did Stanley Cohen develop?
Matza and Sykes
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What was Matza and Sykes' theory?
Neutralisation Theory
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What are the 5 parts to the Neutralisation Theory?
Denial of Responsibility, Denial of Injury, Denial of Victim, Condemnation of the Condemners, Appealing to higher authority.
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What is the denial of responsibility?
Where they claim that they didn't have control over their actions, as they were just doing their duty.
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What is the denial of injury?
That the supposed victims started it, and that the state are the real victims.
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What is the denial of victim?
The argument that the victim deserved whatever actions the offender took against them.
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What does 'appeal to higher loyalities' mean?
Where they argue that they were defending democracy/religion/freedom, and that their actions were for the greater good.
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What is 'Condemning the condemners'
Where they argue that the people who disapprove of their actions, only disapprove because of racism.
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What evidence is there to support the view that not all people who commit state crime are sadists or psychopaths?
Milgram's experiment on obedience
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What were the conclusions of Milgram's experiment?
That if an authoritative person tells someone else (e.g.: the military or the general public) to violate human rights, then they will obey.
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What is a negative evaluative point of Milgram's study?
His sample only consisted of men, therefore you cannot generalise his results.
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Card 2

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Who thought of the 4 types of state crime?

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McLaughlin

Card 3

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What were the 4 types of state crime?

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Card 4

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Give 3 examples of state crime.

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Card 5

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What happened in Nazi Germany?

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