Carbohydrates (Starch- Maltose, Sucrose and Lactose)(AS LEVEL BIO)

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  • Created by: patricia
  • Created on: 17-11-13 10:20
Where is the enzyme Amylase produced in the body?
Mouth and the Pancreas
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What does the enzyme Amylase do?
Hydrolyses glycosidic bonds of starch molecule to produce Maltose
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What is Maltose?
A disaccharide
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What enzyme hydrolyses Maltose?
Maltase
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What product those maltose break down to when enzyme Maltose hyrdrolyses the glycosidic bond?
Maltose turn to monosaccharide alpha glucose
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Where is the enzyme Maltase produced in the body?
In the small intestines
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Where is Saliva made?
Salivary gland
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What does Saliva contain?
Salivary Amylase
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What does Salivary Amylase do?
Hydrolyse starch molecules into maltose
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What does Salivary Amylase also contain?
It contains mineral salts and helps to maintain PH at neutral
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What conditions does the stomach have?
Acidic Conditions
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What does the acid in the stomach do?
It denatures the Amylase(enzyme) to prevent further hydroylses of starch
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What does the pancreatic juice contain?
Pancreatic Amylase
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What does the Pancreatic Amylase do?
Continues to hydrolyse remaining starch molecules into Maltose
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What does both the pancreas and intestinal wall do?
They produce Alkaline salts to maintain the PH change at around neutral so that Amylase can function
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Where in the small intestine does the enzyme Maltase produced?
In the epithelial lining
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What are three disaccharides?
Maltose, Sucrose and Lactose
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What is the disaccharide Maltose made out of?
monosaccharide (a) glucose + (a) glucose 1-4 glycosidic bond
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What is the disaccharide Lactose made out of?
monosaccharide (b)gluose+ (a) galactose 1-4 glycosidic bond
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What is the disaccharide Sucrose made out of?
monosaccharide (a) glucose+ (a) fructose 1-2 glycosidic bond
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What is a disaccharide?
When two monosaccharides join together by condensation reaction
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How is a polysaccharide made?
When more than two monosaccharides join together
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What is a condensation reaction?
When monosaccharides join together, a molecule of water is lost forming a glycosidic bond
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What is a carbohydrate?
Large, complex molecule composed of long chains of monosaccharides
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Where in the body is Sucrose broken down? And what does it produce there in order to break it down?
Sucrose is broken down by Sucrase enzyme produced by the epithelial lining of the small intestine
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What does Sucrase enzyme do?
They breaks down the single glycosidic bond in the sucrose molecule to produce two monosaccharides: (b) glucose+ (a)fructose
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What enzyme hydrolyses the glycosidic bond of Lactose? Where is this enzyme produced?
Lactase. It is produced in the epithelial lining of the small intestine
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What does Lactase do to disaccharide Lactose?
It hydrolyses the glycosidic bond that hold the disaccharide (a) glucose +(a) galactose that make up Lactose
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What are the reducing sugars?
Some diasaccharides (.e.g maltose)
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What is the test used to detect reducing-sugars?
Benedict test
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What other disaccharides are non-reducing sugars?Why?
Sucrose. They do not change colour in Benedict Reagent when they're heated
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How are non-reducing sugars detected?
It must be first broken down into its monosaccharide components
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What happens to Benedict Reaegent when Reducing sugar is present in a solution?
Solution remains blue
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What will dilute hydrochloric acid do?
It will hydrolyse any disaccharides into it's constituent monosaccharide pieces
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What will sodium hydrogen carbonate solution do to hydrochloric acid?
It will neutralise it
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Why do you need to neutralise the hyrdochloric acid solution?
Because Benedict Reagant cannot work in an acidic conditions
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After adding Sodium Hydrogen carbonate to so HCL , what do you need to test for?
PH if the solution in Alkaline
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If non-reducing sugar is present what happens to the Benedict Reagent?
It will change from colour orange to brown
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Why is this so?
This is because of the reducing sugars produced from the hydrolyses of non-reducing sugar
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Sum up the test for non-reducing sugar using Benedict Test. a)
a)add benedict reagent to liquid food form sample to detech whether reducing sugar is present. If it is present it B.R will remain blue
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Sum up the test for non-reducing sugar using Benedict. b)
Heat food sample with HCL to hydrolyse disaccharides into constituent monosaccharides
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Sum up the test for non-reducing sugar using Benedict. c)
c) add Sodium Hydrogen carbonate to neutralise HCL into alkaline. Then detech alkalinity by PH paper
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Sum up the test for non-reducing sugar using Benedict. d)
add and heat benedict reagent with food sample solution. If sample turns orange to brown non-reducing sugar is present
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Sum up the test for non-reducing sugar using Benedict d) why is this?
because reducing sugar is producted during hydrolysis of non-reducing sugar
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What is a polysaccharide?
They are polymers formed by combining more than two monosaccharides
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What is property of a Polysaccharide? What is it useful for?
It is insoluble therefore it is good for storage
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What type of polysaccharide is not use for storage but good for structural support?
Cellulose to support structure of plant cells
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Name another polysaccharide
Starch
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What is the test for starch?
Iodine
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Describe how starch is detected by iodine- potassium iodide solution
By colour change of iodine in potassium iodide solution from yellow to blue-black
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what is starch made out of?
Only glucose
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Glucose (C6H1206) combines with fructose (C6H1206) form a disaccharide sucrose. From your own knowledge of how disaccharides are formed, work out the formula of sucrose.
C6H1206+C6H1206 - H20= C12H22011
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To hyrdolyse a disaccharide it can be boiled with HCL but if hydrolysis is carried out by an Enzyme a much lower temp (40^c) is used. Why this?
Because Enzymes are denatured at high temperatures and this preventing them from functioning/ enzyme lower the activation energy
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What are the enzymes produced by the epithelium of the small intestine?
Lactase, Malatase and Sucrase.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What does the enzyme Amylase do?

Back

Hydrolyses glycosidic bonds of starch molecule to produce Maltose

Card 3

Front

What is Maltose?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What enzyme hydrolyses Maltose?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What product those maltose break down to when enzyme Maltose hyrdrolyses the glycosidic bond?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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