Starch, Glycogen and Cellulose

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What glucose monosaccharides are starch made up of and how are they linked?
Alpha glucose monosaccharide chains linked by glycosidic bonds
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How are glycosidic bonds formed?
Through condensation reactions (molecule of water is released)
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What makes a starch molecule so compact?
The chain of alpha glucose monosaccharides is unbranched and wound into a tight coil.
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What is starch made up of?
Amylose (helix of glucose monomers) & Amylopectin (polymer of glucose monomers, joined by glycosidic bonds with lots of branches)
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Starch - structure related to function?
It is insoluble so it is good for storage and does not draw water into cells via osmosis; does not easily diffuse out of cells; lots packed into small space; alpha glucose is formed when hydrolysed - good in respiration.
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What is the main difference between starch and glycogen?
It has shorter chains of alpha glucose monomers and is more highly branched
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What is the function of glycogen?
Main storage polysaccharide in animals + fungi.
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What is the structure of glycogen similar to?
Amylopectin
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Glycogen structure related to function?
Smaller chains means that it is more readily hydrolysed to release alpha glucose (higher metabolic requirements)
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What is cellulose made up of?
Monomers of BETA glucose (to form glycosidic bonds, each beta glucose on the structure of cellulose must be rotated 180 degrees to its neighbour)
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In the structure of cellulose, why must a beta glucose be 180 degrees to its neighbour in order to form glycosidic bonds?
Because, unlike alpha glucose molecules, the -H group and the -OH group are reversed on a beta glucose molecule
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How are the chains of beta glucose monomers arranged in cellulose?
Straight, unbranched and run parallel to eachother.
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What do the straight, unbranched chains in cellulose allow?
Hydrogen bonds to form cross linkages which strengthens cellulose, forming microfibrils.
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What is the function of cellulose?
To give the plant cell wall structure.
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Cellulose structure related to function?
Microfibrils are strong, strengthening the structure of plant cell walls.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How are glycosidic bonds formed?

Back

Through condensation reactions (molecule of water is released)

Card 3

Front

What makes a starch molecule so compact?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is starch made up of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Starch - structure related to function?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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