Stalin S.4 Impact of WW2 + Making of a superpower.

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THE COMING OF
WAR
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1936, European leaders
knew likelihood of a major war
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What was Stalin's response
Try create pacts with European nations
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When did Germany and Russia sign an NAP?
1939 - The Nazi-Soviet Pact
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In spite of the pact...
...Stalin anticipated a war with Germany
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Therefore the aim of the pact was really...
...to buy Russia more time
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Germany invaded Russia in...
...June 1941
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Russia had emerged victorious by...
...May 1945
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KEY EVENTS
DATES
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JUNE 1941:
Operation Barbarossa
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SEPT 1941:
Operation Typhoon
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AUGUST 1942 - FEB '43:
Battle of Stalingrad
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SEPT 1942:
Operation Uranus
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JAN 1944:
Ten Great Victories
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APRIL 1945:
Battle for Berlin
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How far was Russia ready for war? [3 key areas]
The Red Army / Russian economy / Spying
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The Red Army:
1936-38, the purging of the Red Army removed its most senior officers, significantly weakening it's strength.
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Russian Economics: preparation hampered by
The Chaos of Plan #3
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Spending on rearmament at the end of the Terror (and date)
1938: 27.5B roubles
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Spending on rearmament in 1941:
70.9B roubles
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Spying: Ups and downs
Despite the best spy network in the world providing accurate reports of Germany strength and plans, Stalin's paranoia saw this valuable information ignored
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THE COST OF WAR: [2 AREAS]
Human Cost / Economic Cost
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[Deaths] # / % killed DIRECTLY from war?
10 million / 20 %
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[Deaths] # who died from injuries or as PoW
10 million
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[Dislocation] How many Russian ended up in German-occupied territory during war?
85 million.
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How many people took advantage how this situation and why?
20 million used it to flee communism.
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[Women] Responsibilities during war [2]
Maintaining homes + industry / agriculture = Home Front.
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Typical hours in a factory shift
12 / 18
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When were they required to work night shifts on top?
During harvest time.
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What was requisitioned which put extra strain on women in agriculture?
Farm animals and machinery.
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First holiday in 4 years [date]
9 May 1945
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Economic cost [4 areas]
Total cost, Infrastructure, Production, Rationing
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ECONOMIC COST [Total cost according to X]
Gosplan estimated the progress made during plans #1 and #2 were wiped out by the destruction of war.
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[Infrastructure] At the start of war, Russian infrastructure was...
...radically reorganised.
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How?
Factories under threat destroyed or dismantled and sent E. of Moscow.
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Factories relocated in first month of war
1523
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End of war, Germany...
...Adopted a scorched earth policy.
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Factories and KM of railway destroyed by war...
32,000 and 65,000 KM
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[Production] What two factors resulted in a decline in production?
Reorganisation of infrastructure + conscription of experienced workers.
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1942 industrial output was X of?:
59% of 1940
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The 1942 harvest was X of?
36% of 1940 harvest.
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[Rationing] Citizen lived on X rations throughout war
PALTRY
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% of grain requisitioned for army?
90%
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Factory canteens served...
...nettle soup
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In BESIEGED cities of Moscow, Leningrad and Stalingrad, citizens ate...
...blockade bread, birds, rats, pets, shoes and dead bodies
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REASONS FOR VICTORY:
RUSSIAN WAR EFFORT
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3 REASONS FOR RUSSIAN VICTORY: WW2
1) War Economy. 2) The Home Front. 3) The enemy within.
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Who oversaw the war economy?
Gosplan
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Suitability of Gosplan organising war economy?
Ideally suited
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How many factories did they oversee relocation of in month #1 of war?
1523.
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% of national income devoted to war in X year?
By 1942 56% of national income was devoted to war
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Compared to other countries fighting...
...This figure was much higher than any other.
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Between 1941 - 1944...
....armament production doubled.
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THE HOME FRONT: Stalin appealed to... [2]
...Patriotism and Religion
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In doing so, Stalin altered...
...the presentation of communist ideology.
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This was a X move...
...SHREWD
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Stalin's attitude towards the church pre-war
He had worked to undermine it
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Stalin's attitude to the church during war
Ceased attacks in order to get its backing.
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Appealing to patriotism and the church was...
... more effective than appealing to communism.
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Communism was unpopular due to... [2]
The Great Terror // Stalin's failed economic policy.
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2 ways in which Stalin appealed to nationalism.
War dubbed "The Great Patriotic War." // Soldiers encouraged to use nationalist nicknames to refer to Germans
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Example of names they called Germans
Fritz + Kraut (derogatory)
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Ultimately patriotism's effect was...
...giving the Russians a REASON to fight.
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Who was the leader of the ROC during war?
Metropolitan Sergei
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What did he say of Stalin?
"God's chosen leader."
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What did Sergei say of war?
It was a holy war.
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What did Stalin do in return?
Closed "The Godless" in 1941
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In the final year of war, Stalin...
...allowed 414 churches to reopen.
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Effect of having churches backing [morale]
Promise of heaven gave comfort for soldiers who saw death daily. / Conviction of God's blessing in the face of death.
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The enemy within [NKVD's plan]
Drew up lists of non-Russian people living in the USSR who may be sympathetic to Germany.
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These people were... [2]
... relocated or murdered.
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Which group of ethnics were deported to Siberia following a German people [how many]
130,000 Kalmkys
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By 1953 X % of those deported had died...
By 1953, 60% of those deported had died.
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REASONS FOR VICTORY:
MILITARY CAMPAIGNS AND ALLIED SUPPORT
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How did military campaigns aid German victory?
Hitler made a series of major tactical errors.
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Initial tactical failure of Hitler.
Launched campaign vs Russia while he still had troops guarding the western front = Divided forces
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Key mistake made by Hitler
Chose to lay siege to Moscow rather than take it by force.
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By doing so...
...The Russian army was allowed TIME to regroup and fight back.
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When did Hitler make his third major tactical error.
July 1942
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What did he do?
Sent troops to Stalingrad and embroiled in another siege.
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What SHOULD he have done?
Sent more troops to capture Moscow to knock Russia out of war.
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In what ways did the X help Russia? [2]
The Grand Alliance helped Russia 1) militarily and 2) economically.
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Essential developments in X and Y [years]
1942 and 1944, Britain and the USA opened fronts.
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This had a 2-fold effect
Divided German forces // Took pressure off eastern front.
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1942: Name of campaign and which front was opened?
Operation Torch, Southern front in North Africa
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1944: Which front was opened?
Western front, dormant since 1940.
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What american scheme did Russia benefit from?
Lend-lease
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What did it entail?
Allies to access American war goods for a fraction of their real price.
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Examples of things provided by lend-lease: [4]
Airplanes, Tanks, Trains, Jeeps.
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% of airplanes and tanks funded by L-L
12% airplanes, 10% of tanks
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% of trains and jeeps funded by L-L
95% of trains, 66 % of jeeps
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What other key resource did L-L provide?
MUNCH
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% of Red Army calorie intake funded by L-L
17% of food funded by L-L
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Gosplans estimation for % of goods funded by L-L?
4%.
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What is significant about this figure?
It ALONE underestimates the importance of the scheme.
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The Russian economy alone was...
...unable to produce food + sophisticated transport in large numbers.
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Ultimately, Gosplan...
...COMPENSATED for the deficiencies of Russian economy which aided its victory.
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S-S-S-S-S-S...
SUPAPOWA!
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The end of WW2 led to...
...a major realignment in world politics
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In what way?
The empires who had dominated for over a C. gave way to two new superpowers.
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In what other way?
The Grand Alliance fell apart = Cold War.
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What was Russia's superpower based on? [3]
Geographical influence, Economy, Military might
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[Geographical influence] By 1946 Russia had crucially gained...
...A sphere of influence in Eastern Europe.
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This acted as..
...a buffer zone between them and its capitalist enemies in the west.
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How did it help Russia to become a superpower?
Effectively allowed them to control half of Europe.
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Where did Russia establish communist regimes?
E.Germany, Poland, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungry
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These countries could otherwise be labelled as...
...satellite states.
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A satellite state is one which...
...is officially independent, but under heavily influence from another state
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As such, Russia controlled their [2]
Foreign and economic policy.
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Russia's military relationship with its satellite states
Informal alliances, which suggested they would fight W/ Russia in future conflicts.
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Economy: Aim of Plan #4
Restore Russia's economic might.
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How did it assure their superpower status?
Allowed them to compete with USA in terms of military spending.
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Russian growth during Plan #4
Fastest growing economy in the world.
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195X: Industrial production =
By 1952 industrial production was double that of 1940.
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Focus of Plan #4 + 5 [2]
Rearmament + Heavy industry
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[Military Might] Russian army by 1946
3M Men = largest in the world.
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How much did the 4th 5YP devote to defence?
7.4 Billion.
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This figure was X compared to X
2B more compared to defence spending in the run up to war.
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2 key developments in the late 40s / early 50s.
1949: Atomic Bomb // 1953: Hydrogen bomb. = RIVALLED USA.
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Related to this^, after war Russia began
Developing rockets to be used as missiles vs USA.
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These missiles would later...
...be used in Russia's conquest of space.
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Russia at the time of Stalin's death [date]
1953. Stalin had transformed Russia from a backward agricultural economy into an industrialised superpower. This had come at the cost of millions of lives due to dekulakisation, the great terror and ww2.
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