Stalin S.3 Persecution + Control - The Totalitarian Regime

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Between which years did the Great Terror occur?
1936 - 38
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Who killed X people?
Secret Police (NKVD) killed 10M>
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Why were they killed?
Stalin believed them a threat to his regime
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5 Causes of the Great Terror
Lenin's police state / Stalin's paranoia / Economics / [17th]Congress of Victors (1934) / Kirov's murder 1934
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[LPS] Who had Lenin used the secret police against?
His political enemies
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[LPS] What did Stalin use the NKVD against and why?
The Communist Party - the last institution that could oppose his PERSONAL RULE.
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[Stalin's paranoia] Why did the fates of Stalin's former rivals scare him?
They all held leading positions, as he did, before they fell.
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[SP]Who did Stalin fear would bring about such a fate?
Groups loyal to his former rivals
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[SP] Stalin's fear of Trotsky's allies
The Red Army, established by his archival, contained many soldier loyal to their former leader.
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[SP] Stalin's fear from Z+K's allies
Their power bases had been the two biggest cities
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[SP] Stalin's fear from Bukharin's allies
General Yagoda, head of NKVD, sided with Bukharin in 1928
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[Economics] How did the 5 Year Plans feed into the Great Terror? (2)
Stalin needed a scapegoat for it's failings / large labour force required for projects such as Magnitogorsk.
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[Economics] Where did those who were arrested sent to?
Gulags, to work as slaves.
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[17th Congress 1934] What vote was taken?
To elect a new Central Committee
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[17th Congress 1934] Vote results
Stalin 927 / Kirov 1225
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[17th Congress 1934] Why was Stalin already concerned about Kirov
He had forced him to change his economic policy during Plan #2
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[17th Congress 1934] What happened following the vote that fed Stalin's paranoia
A group of senior communists approached Kirov, urging him to stand for Stalin's position. Results hushed up
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[KIROV'S MURDER 1934] Where and who was Kirov assassinated by?
Leningrad by a lone gunman
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[KIROV'S MURDER 1934] Stalin's immediate response
Used the event as a pretext to arrest Z+K and closest followers.
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[KIROV'S MURDER 1934] Stalin's general response
Said it was evidence of a widespread conspiracy within the Party to overthrow the Govt. and restore capitalism.
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[KIROV'S MURDER 1934] Kirov's murder in relation to the Great Terror.
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The show trials were the Great Terror's...
...most public manifestation
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The aim:
Deal with Stalin's old adversaries
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The 3 Show Trials
Trial of Sixteen 1936 / Trial of the Seventeen 1937 / Trial of the twenty-one 1938
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Trial of Sixteen 1936 - Defendants
Zinoviev, Kamenev + followers
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Trial of the Seventeen 1937 - Defendants
Trotsky and supporters
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Trial of the Twenty-One 1938 - Defendants
Bukharin / Yagoda
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All defendants were charged with (4)
Murder of Kirov, plotting to disrupt economic policy + restoring capitalism, working w/ foreign powers + plotting to murder Stalin
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Who was charged with the extra crime of X
Bukharin, plotting to murder Lenin
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Actions + Fate of 1936 defendants
Confessed in hope of a pardon - EXECUTED
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Actions + Fate of 1937 defendants
Confessed following torture. All but 4 executed.
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Actions + Fate of 1938 defendants
Bukharin confessed to "political responsibility" as his sam was threatened. Did not confess to Lenin. All executed
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Which trial was fishy?
Trial of 17. One defendant confessed to Kirov charge despite being in prison at the time
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What other important trial took place during the Great Terror {think which group hadn't been dealt with}
Secret Trial of 1937 - 8 Generals
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Why was the trial kept secret?
Stalin did not want to alarm the public with war looming.
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The eight generals were charged with...
...plotting to murder Stalin.
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Their actions and fate
Confessed following torture.
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How did Stalin further deal with the army over the next 18 months
34,000 soldiers purged.
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Personal Significance of the show trials (3)
Removed 1920s rivals / Silenced those who knew Testament / Removed people appointed by Lenin = authority independent from Stalin
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Public Significance of the show trials
Propaganda 'proving' Stalin alone could be trusted with the future of Russia.
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WHEN was X replaced by Y as head of the NKVD
After the trial of the sixteen, Yezhov replaced Yagoda.
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How did Yezhov influence the Great Terror
Reformed the NKVD, extending it throughout the country
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This period...
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4 areas surrounding Yezhovchina
Doctrine of sharpening class struggle (1937) / Conveyor belt system / Wider Terror / Final Victims
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Stalin's justification of the Great Terror
New doctrine, claiming the closer Russia came to communism, the harder the capitalists would fight.
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Conclusively, this doctrine justified...
... increasing repression.
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When did the doctrine become official party policy
March 1937, meeting of the CC
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Within [time] of meeting what had happened...
...3 months after, 70% of those present had fallen to the Terror they had voted to extend
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Old NKVD agents were...
loyal to the Party and generally opposed widespread Terror
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They were...
...purged and replaced by new agents, prepared to torture party members.
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How many NKVD members were executed?
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Yezhov's reforms to NKVD to boost efficiency? [2]
Conveyor belt system to accelerate confessions / Set targets with Stalin for arrests and executions.
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[Wider Terror] How did the Terror occur outside Moscow [2]
Factory managers trialed by their employees / Industrial managers + Govt. admins targeted.
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Some apartment blocks in major cities..
...deserted as all residents arrested.
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In Kazan...
locals put communist officials on trial for living luxurious lifestyles on public funds
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Between 1934 - 38
333,000 party members arrested and convicted.
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They were denounced as...
...enemies of the people
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When did the Great Terror end?
Middle of 1938.
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Two final victims
Yezhov end of 1938. Trotsky by new NKVD leader Beria in 1940.
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Economic, Political, Social
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Economic Consequences: (3)
Kirov gone = no opposition over Plan#2 / Lies about production figures / Purges of GP = Plan #3 unpublished.
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Economic Consequences (4)
Removal of managers = inefficiency / stagnations {Donbas coal production which trebled between 1928-36)
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Political consequences [2 areas]
Consolidation of power / The running of the Party / Govt.
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Consolidation of power [3]
Trials removed 1920s rivals / Kirov's supporters wanted to moderate policy (gone) / Stalin deflected criticism of 5YPlans, claiming sabotage
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The communist party [3]
Admin of Govt. ground to halt as officials scared to make decisions / Loyal, junior members were promoted in place of their purged bosses.
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3 Areas of Social consequences
Family Life / Escaping the Terror / Terror from below.
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Direct impact on family life
10% of men were victims + 95% of total were men aged 30-45 HUSBANDS and FATHERS
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Consequences for children
Persecuted and humiliated @ school and Komsomol
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[Escaping the Terror] Best method to do so was
Become a member of the working class
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Who was caught trying to feign a new identity
Vladimir Gromov - "prize winning architect:" 10 YEARS IN GULAG
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Daughters of victims escaped by...
...marrying members of the working class
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Who else aided people in escaping the Terrors and how?
Local officials, bribed to issue new ID papers.
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[TERROR FROM BELOW] How did ordinary people use the Terror and why?
Unsatisfied with life in this Russia, they used it to express frustration and promote their own interests.
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Who played a lead role in the Terror from below?
Stakhanovites, used it to remove managers and gain promotion.
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What other reptiles took part in the Terror from below?
UNSCRUPULOUS WORKERS - inform on neighbours / colleagues to gain vacated property.
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Art in 1920s:
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Stalin's vision of art [2]
Inspire workers + celebrate economic achievements
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SOCIALIST Realism art needed to...
...reflect socialist values
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SocialistREALISM art needed to...
...Be realistic in a traditional sense
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In painting this meant
Art be photogenic
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In Literature this meant...
...stories describe lives of working people
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In architecture this meant...
traditional classical styles
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In summary, Socialist Realism was designed to... [2]
...Show achievements of Stalins Russia + give glimpse what could be
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What was socialist realism as a means?
A form of social control
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To what end?
Persuade workers / peasants their sacrifices were part of the grand vision.
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Art was used to maintain...
...the popularity of the regime + consolidate his how position
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Example of a painting
"1932 - Training cadets for Magnitogorsk" - Lobanov
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Example of literature
"1936 -How the Steel was Tempered" Russian workers joining the RA to fight in Civil War - Ostrovsky
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Example of architecture
1935 - Teatralnaya, Moscow Metro Station built to look like a palace but accessible to workers
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What characterised the Cult of Stalin?
The celebration of his genius and goodness
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What purpose did it play in his X
In his TOTALITARIAN regime, allowed people to feel loyalty and gratitude to STALIN, even when the regime failed
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How was the Cult of Personality spread? (4)
Official Histories, Faking History, Stalin in Art, The popular cult
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Role of official histories?
Underpin the CoP
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3 General trends in official histories
, exaggerating his role in the revolution, his friendship W/ Lenin while ridiculing former opponents
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Example of official history [long title and year]
A short course of the history of the all union communist party (1939)
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Example of official history [short title and year]
Joseph Stalin: A Short biography (1947)
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[FAKING HISTORY] Example of history being altered?
Photos of Lenin + Trotsky were doctored to remove the latter in place of Stalin
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Name of a painting which faked history?
[Stalin as an Organiser of the October Revolution] 1945. Showed Stalin playing Trotskys role
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[Stalin in art] Main themes of the CoP art? [2]
Lenin's pupil / The myth of the two leaders.
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Through what means was Stalin presented as Lenin's pupil and when?
Socialist Realist art in the 1930s
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What effect did this have?
Presented him as carrying on the work of Lenin.
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Which photomontage shows Stalin standing infant of a bust of Lenin
Long live the Stalinist Order of Heroes and Stakhanovites (1936)
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Effectively it showed Stalin as..
... the Lenin of today
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When was Soviet history rewritten again and how?
Late 1930s. Stalin's role ^ while Lenin's decreased.
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The two men were presented as...
Equals, in standing and events
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Important event confirming the myth of the two leaders and when
Late 1930s, Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism became the official ideology.
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[POPULAR CULT] The two cults provided a...
...focus for popular enthusiasm about COMMUNISM
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Example 1:
Stalin bday = national holiday
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Christian symbolism was replaced by...exemplified by
communist symbolism, focus on Lenin's tomb
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How could ordinary citizens participate in the cults?
Buying speeches, painting and sculptures.
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Emphasised Stalin's WISDOM + Country was safe as he was an infallible leader carrying on the work of a secular saint.
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Between which years did the Great Terror occur?


1936 - 38

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Who killed X people?


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Why were they killed?


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5 Causes of the Great Terror


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