Stalin S.2 - Transforming the SU - Collectivisation + Industrialisation

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What and when did Stalin launch X
Revolution from above in 1928.
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Aim:
Transform Russia's agriculture and industry
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Reasons for economic modernisation
Economic, Ideological, Political + Fear of war
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Economic situation in 1927
NEP failed to deliver ^ growth in any sector relative to 1926.
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Agricultural situation in 1926
Production of grain and livestock fell = Grain Procurement Crisis.
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Industrial situation
Output plateaued.
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Production under NEP...
never exceeded pre 1914 levels
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Stalin's view on free market
Needed to be replaced by economic planning to increase growth
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Key goal of communist Govt.
Industrialisation
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What was needed for rapid industrialisation
Agricultural reform.
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Why was agricultural reform essential? (2)
Provide food needed for growing industrial workforce + release peasants to work in industry.
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Why had the NEP causes ideological disputes?
Even while successful, a large section of the party favoured a more socialist system.
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How and why did Stalin's reforms address ideological disputes?
Replacing the free market with Central Planning reflected the parties long standing ideological goals.
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What concerns were there surrounding communism and popular support?
Communists concerned that peasants preferred capitalism to communism.
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What did Stalin hope to achieve by reforming AGRICULTURE?
Convince peasants of the benefits of communism.
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Stalin believed the NEP had...
...benefitted the peasants over the working class.
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Why was this an issue?
As a communist he was committed to the welfare of the workers; his reforms looked to improve their living and working conditions.
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How was Stalin's move to economic modernisation politically motivated?
By destroying the NEP, he forced the CC to choose between his and Bukharin's policies, which would cement him as leader.
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What did Russian officials fear at the end of the 1920s?
Germany preparing for war.
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Why was Russia at a disadvantage?
German industrial production far exceeded Russia's.
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What did Russia require in order to fight?
The modern economy necessary for rearmament.
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COLLECTIVISATION +
CONSEQUENCES.
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Collectivisation entailed...
...merging small farms into large mechanised farms.
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The benefits of this...
...Work and resources shared = greater efficiency
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Collectivisation was a response to
the Grain Procurement Crisis.
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As such it went hand in hand with...
The persecution of the Kulak. (Stalin believed they were hoarding grain)
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Stages of collectivisation: 1928
emergency Measures = Rationing in cities + requisitioning introduced
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1929:
compulsory collectivisation / Dekulakisation / 27,000 volunteers assisted with dekulakisation
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1930:
compulsory collectivisation stopped. Farmers returned to their own farms. Chaos blamed on party members being dizzy W/ success.
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1931:
collectivisation restarts at slower pace.
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1932:
famine: 10M dead
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1941:
all farms in Russia collectivised
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Was collectivisation successful?
No, it was a disaster.
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Consequences of collectivisation? (3)
Famine, Effects on rural areas, Effects on urban areas.
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Factors surrounding outbreak of famine (4)
Dekulakisation (successful farmers X) / Destruction of livestock + grain in protest / Unrealistic targets and failure to meet = confiscation / Less grain produced + more exported.
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How many horses and sheep destroyed in protest between X and Y
18 million horses + 10 million sheep between 1929 - 33
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Exports rose from X to Y between Z + V
0.03M tonnes - 5M tonnes (1928 - 31)
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Famine killed X people between 1932 - 34
10 million.
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Which area was hit hard and why?
The Ukraine. Stalin refused to allow any grain into the region to alleviate famine.
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3 areas of rural effects
Exiled peasants / Harvest / Tractors
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Effects on rural areas (Exiling)
Dekulakisation = 10M peasants exiled. Up to 10% in some villages
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What % of peasants were exiled in some areas?
10%
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Harvest of 1933 compared to 1926
10M tonnes less
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What had happened by 1932
MTS supplied 75,000 tractors to collective farms, making up for the decline in horses.
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Effects on urban areas (2)
Standard of living plummeted / Famine = ^ urbanisation.
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What was rationed + protein decline in diet by 1932?
Bread / 66%
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Population of some cities X between Y + Z?
Trebled between 1930 - 40.
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FIVE YEAR PLAN #1 (Date)
1928 - 32
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Stalin aimed to use the 5 year plans to...
Catch up with Western industry in 15 years.
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Who administered the planned economy and what did they do?
Gosplan. Set targets for production across Russia.
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The plan focused on X. Give 4 examples
Heavy industry - coal, iron, oil and steel.
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Why did the first plan, Plan 1 focus on heavy industry? (1)
These industries produced raw materials needed for future economic devel + rearmament /
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Why was Plan # 1 suited for the Russian workforce?
Majority of workers (many peasants) had little industrial experience = suited to uncomplicated heavy industrial tasks
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Successes of Plan #1
Production + Social Mobility
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[Production] Yearly rate of economic growth
14%
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[Production] Output relative to the NEP
Exceeded the NEP.
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What led to a the urban population increasing by X in the 1930s?
Problems in the countryside and new opportunities in the cities caused urban population to TREBLE.
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Generic example of social mobility in the 1930s
Promotions available to experienced workers.
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Specific example of social mobility in the 1930s.
Bourgeois specialists replaced by 150,000 new red specialists.
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How did the Govt. aid social mobility
Invested in technical education + encouraged workers to attend courses at Russian uni's
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Failures of Plan #1 (4)
Quantity + Quality / Living standards / Black Market / Slave Labour
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Gosplans audacious targets and pressure on managers led to..
poor quality / useless produce and widespread lying about extent of production
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[Living standards] Stalin introduced
7 day working week + longer working hours
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what was criminalised?
lateness, striking and breaking industrial equipment
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PLAN #2 (DATE)
1933 - 38
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Initial Focus of Plan #2
Develop Russia in a more rounded way
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What industries did it focus on? (6)
Electrification, transport, labour productivity, new industries, consume goods and heavy industry
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Why did the Plan take this direction? [Politically]
The Kirov group pressured Stalin to prioritise consumer goods + living standards, arguing this would increase the party's popularity
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Why were the years 1933 - 36 described as X?
"Three Good Years" - consumer goods available
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2 other reasons why Plan #2 took this direction
Plan #1 had produced vast amounts of raw materials unused as there was no way to transport them. / Plan 1 had produced a gen. of workers able to perform complex industrial tasks.
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When and to what did the focus change towards?
1936, Rearmament
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Why? (2)
Germany was rearming and Russian planners feared war + Kirov was assassinated in 1924 and his followers purged
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Successes of Plan.2 (5)
Transport, Consumer Goods, Labour productivity, Heavy industry, Rearmament
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Failures of Plan.2 (4)
Housing, Consumer Goods, Inequalities, Quality and Quantity
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The Third Five Year Plan (Date)
1938-41
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Focus:
Heavy Industry + Rearmament
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How was it affected by X?
Hampered by chaos of the Great Terror
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Successes Of Plan #3 (3)
Rearmament / Heavy Industry / Worker Discipline
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Failures of Plan #3 (3)
Heavy industry / Administration / Consumer Goods
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NB:
Consumer Goods always a failure
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Russian industry by 1941:
HIGHLY INDUSTRIALISED / URBANISED COUNTRY
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Russia was capable of
Producing enormous quantities of raw materials
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This was important as it...
...laid the foundation for victory in WW2.
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Describe the overall development of the Russian economy
UNEVEN
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Consumer goods during this time vs NEP
scarcer.
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Living standards...
Poor diet
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Development of new industries
grew slowly
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Summarise pros and cons
completely transformed russia into an advanced industrial economy, ready for war but at the expense of the living standards of Russia people
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The Great Retreat:
Women
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Why did Trotsky describe the 1930s as the Great Retreat?
It was a time where traditional attitudes were reasserted
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In comparison to...
...The 1920s: a period of liberalisation in terms of attitudes to sex, family and the role of women.
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Despite this perceived "retreat' the 1930s...
...witnessed a large ^ in no. women earning P in industry and agriculture
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4 Areas affecting women
Women at work / Women at home / Sex + Babies / Marriage + divorce
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[Women @ work] Women in industry 1928:
3 million
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Women in industry 1941:
13 M
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% of women workers in Russian industry by 1941? (big clue)
41%
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Women and education
Govt increased educational opportunities. Women in education doubled
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How significant was women's role in agriculture?
Dominated it.
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% of collective farm workers
80%
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Examples of female Stakhanovites (2)
Pasha Angelina (First women Tractor Brigade) Maria Demchanko (increased sugar beet yield 400%)
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Example of inequality at work
Womens wage 40% less than men
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[Women @ home] What was expected of women?
Run the home + resign from jobs after married
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Time spent on domestic chores vs men
5 x more
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Who emphasised the domestic role of women?
Communist Women's Section
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Who / what did they encourage
wife activists to set an example to other women by running well-ordered yards
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[Sex and babies] When were traditional attitudes reasserted?
1936
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How were they reasserted? (4)
homosexuality + adultery criminalised. Contraception + abortion banned
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What did the Govt promote and how?
Large families by offering grants for women with 6+ children
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How was this received?
in the first month, 4,000 women applied for grants
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[Marriage and Divorce] What was banned and reintroduced?
Banned in 1928 and reintroduced in 1936. Wedding Rings
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What was also available?
Wedding certificates on HQ paper
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How were affairs treated?
Named and shamed in Soviet Media (Trud - trade union paper)
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Cost of first, second and 3rd divorce
50, 150 + 300 roubles.
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Men who left families were expected to...
contribute 60% of income in child support
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What did these measures result in?
Marriage = norm
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1937: % of men and women (in 30's) married
91% men / 82% women.
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THE GREAT RETREAT:
FAMILY + EDUCATION
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What means did the Govt. use to emphasise the important of the family?
Propaganda
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How was the working class described as?
One big family, Stalin as father
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How was Stalin presented after what event?
Family man, following a highly publicised visit to his aging mother in Tbilisi.
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Propaganda demonised...
...men who cheated and neglected their family
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3 key areas education to remember
Komsomol, School + Teachers
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What was the Komsomol?
The Soviet Youth Organisation
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Its goal:
Turn Soviet children into hard working obedient citizens, who loved and respected their parents
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Their message was conveyed through
Komsomolskaia Pravda
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Who did it tell the story of?
Morozov, perfect child murdered by kulaks.
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Komsomols attitude to sex
promoted abstinence - backed up by medical checks and police arrests on girls who dressed inappropriately
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[School] When did Stalin launch the new curriculum
1935
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Education in 1920s characterised by
freedom of thought
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Education in 1930s characterised by (4)
discipline, national tradition, literacy + maths
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Aim of school
Produce disciplined, educated workers ready to contribute to the fulfilment of the 5 year plans
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Core subjects (3)
reading, writing, science
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Time divided: (4)
30% Lang + Lit / 20% maths / 15% science / 10 % history
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Under Stalin's curriculum, Russia pre-revolution was called
a prison of the peoples
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Which Russian leaders became the centre of a new focus (2)
Ivan the Terrible / Peter the Great
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Students taught [govt]
why communism was the best system worldwide
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[Teachers] How did the Stakhanovite movement influence schools?
Teachers set themselves audacious targets and were rewarded for meeting them
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Example of Stakhanovite teacher
Olga Leonova, pledged ALL her students would pass flying. Success celebrated in soviet media.
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Which event reflected the spirit of the purges in schools (date)
The First Russian Educational Conference 1939
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What was the verdict?
Falling standards blamed on teachers not planning rather than new curriculum or it's supporting textbooks
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Aim:

Back

Transform Russia's agriculture and industry

Card 3

Front

Reasons for economic modernisation

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Economic situation in 1927

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Agricultural situation in 1926

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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