Stalin Economic Transformation

  • Created by: AshyBoy
  • Created on: 29-10-18 12:58
THE FIVE YEAR PLANS
blah blah blah
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What was "The Great Turn"?
It was Stalin changing his mind about the NEP
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Why did he change his mind?
Because of the NEP's inability to grow the economy; a war scare in the late 20's so a need for military strength and self sufficiency and take a step towards socialism
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The Five Year Plans were intended to encourage _______ owners and ___ to work with maximum ___ through ambitious ___ set out by the government under threat of criminal ___ . However this threat meant that factory owners would ___ about their numbers.
factory - workers - goals - prosecution - lie
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When was the first Five Year Plan?
1928-32
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What was its successes? (Brackets are the goals)
Electricity output x 3 (6) ; Coal and Iron x 2 ; Steal Production increased by 1/3
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What was its failures?
Although Stalin said that the goals were met in 4 years these statistics were forged. Inn reality none of the goals were reached. The goals for chemical and light industry were not met due to the lack of skilled workers and central organisation.
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When was the second Five Year Plan?
1933-37
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What was its successes?
The Moscow Metro was opened in 1935; The Volga Canal 1937; Dnieprostroi Dam (HydroElectric) in 1932; Steel x 3; Coal x 2 and by 1937 the Soviet Union was self sufficient (tools)
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What were its failures?
Consumer goods and light industry still lacking and quantity over quality had continued from the first plan
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The focus of the second Five Year Plan shifted, in ____, to __________ . The percentage of GDP rose from _% in 1933 to __% by 1937.
1936 - rearmament - 4% - 17%
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When was the third Five Year Plan?
1938-42
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What was the main aim of this plan?
To prepare for war
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Arms spending between 1938 and ____ almost _______ . However, this had an adverse effect on the economy.The _____ industry stagnated and ___ failed to meet its goals causing a fuel crisis.
1940 - doubled - steel - What oil
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What were the main problems with the plan?
The lack of good managers and specialists due to Stalin's purges; a hard winter in 1938 and the plan being cut short due to Germany's invasion.
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AGRICULTURAL CHANGE
blah blah blah
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What was collective farming?
It was putting peasants together in communes and having them harvest grain for overall commune quotas.
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What was the implementation of it aiming to achieve?
It aimed to increase grain production so the government could export it and get enough money to become self sufficient during a war scare. By 1927 peasants were not producing enough and workers complained that the NEP benefited the peasants more.
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What was the term used to describe the peasants attitudes?
"Petty Bourgeois Attitudes"
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1926-28: Because of the lack of grain who is taxed more?
Kulaks and Nepmen
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What method of farming does Stalin put emphasis on during this period?
The "Ural Siberian" method of forced grain seizures and the closing of markets.
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At this point what is the governments policy on collectivization?
It is still voluntary but heavily encouraged.
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1929: The ____ ________ method is used throughout Russia and the ___ economic policy is brought to an end.
Ural Siberian - NEP
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December 1929: What does Stalin do in terms of collectivization
He launches forced collectivization
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COLLECTIVISATION
blah blah blah
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Stage 1 ( 19__ - 1930 )
29
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Who did Stalin blame for the lack of grain and why?
The Kulaks, because of their knowledge of how the economy works (Holding back grain increases demand and inevitably the price too.
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What did Stalin order?
"The annihilation of the Kulaks"
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What percentage of peasant homes were destroyed in this period?
15%
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How many peasants were forced to migrate to the northern, poorer lands?
150,000
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What did this war on the Kulaks cause the Kulaks to do?
To kill their livestock and crops so as to not be classified as Kulaks.
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When did Stalin announce that 15% of farming areas were to be collectivised?
1930
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Who was this enforcing carried out by?
The Red Army and Cheka
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What were the collectivised regions called?
"Kolkhoz"
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By _____ 1930 __% of households had been colelctivised
March - 58%
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Why was volunteered collectivisation reintroduced?
Due to the "over eagerness" of party locals who were "dizzy with success" hostility grew within the countryside.
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How long was this supposed to last?
Untill after the year's harvest was gathered
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By _______ 1930 only __% of households were collectivised
October - 20%
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Stage 2 (1930 - 19__ )
41
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What were MTS's ?
Machine Tractor Stations. They provided seeds; maintained/lended machinery to Kolkhoz's, ensured quotas were collected & controlled the countryside in general by dealing with troublemakers.
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What was this policy of the war against the Kulaks called?
Dekulakisation
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What did this policy lead to?
10 million of the best farmers lost and 30% of the livestock killed between 29' & 33'.
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At what point did livestock numbers exceed those of 1929?
1953
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What did the unreachable grain quotas lead to?
Peasant needing to give away all of their grain
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At what point did grain output exceed that of 1929?
1935
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Why were the collectives so poorly run and inefficient?
Because they were run by party members who didn't know how to farm and there were few tractors, plough animals and fertilisers.
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When was the famine in the Ukraine?
1932-33
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Why did this famine happen?
Due to a lack of Kulak farmers. a drought and unrealistic grain quotas with punishments being received by those who didn't meet them.
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What was issued to stop peasants from leaving the communes?
Internal passports
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When was it made a capital crime to steal from a collective? (10 years imprisonment)
1932
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What other action invloving food was made illegal?
To sell meat and grain before the food quotas were met
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What did the peasants refer to the collectives as?
The second serfdom
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How did a peasant individually get profited from these collectives?
They were supposed to be given a share of the profits but rarely were. Instead they had private plots of land to grow their own crops. (Due to lack of food the government allowed this)
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Ultimately what statistic shows that the Soviet economy in terms of food was not truly socialist?
52% of vegetables, 70% of meat and 71% of milk in the Soviet Union was produced by the private plots of land in communes.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What was "The Great Turn"?

Back

It was Stalin changing his mind about the NEP

Card 3

Front

Why did he change his mind?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

The Five Year Plans were intended to encourage _______ owners and ___ to work with maximum ___ through ambitious ___ set out by the government under threat of criminal ___ . However this threat meant that factory owners would ___ about their numbers.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

When was the first Five Year Plan?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

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