Sports Science: Cardio-respiratory exercise physiology

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Define Homeostasis
Maintenance of a constant internal environment
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Outline the components of the Ventilatory system (Start most superior)
Nasal Passage, Oral Cavity, Pharynx, Larynx, Trachea, Lungs, Ribs, Bronchi, Bronchioles, Alvelous, Diaphragm
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What is the main physics principle behind breathing?
Diffusion = A substance will flow from an area of high pressure to one of lower pressure
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Explain the role of the Diaphragm in breathing
For breathing to occur the air pressure must be lower in the lungs than in the atmosphere, therefore the Diaphragm pulls downward which increases the volume of the lungs, causing reduced pressure, causing the atmospheric air to flow into the lungs
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Describe an Exhalation
The process is passive as the Diaphragm just relaxes and recoils into the original position
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Describe what happens to breathing during exercise
Air needs to be inhaled and exhaled at a faster rate, Additional muscles like the abdomen can help increase lung volume, these muscles will also exert more force
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Explain the role of the Nasal Passage and the Oral Cavity
Air is warmed and moistened, Filtered for unwanted substances
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Where does gas exchange take place in the Lungs?
Alveolus
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Define Pulmonary Ventilation
Inflow and outflow of air between the atmosphere and the lungs
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Define Total Lung Capacity
Volume of air in the lungs after maximal inhalation
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Define Vital Capacity
Maximum volume of air that can be exhaled after a maximal inhalation
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Define Tidal Volume
Volume of air breathed in and out in any one breath
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Define Expiratory Reserve Volume
Volume of air in excess of tidal volume that can be exhaled forcibly
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Define Inspiratory Reserve Volume
Additional inspired air, over and above tidal volume
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Define Residual Volume
Volume of air still contained in the lungs after maximal exhalation
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What happens to the pressure gradient when exercising?
The pressure gradient at the tissues and lungs becomes greater as more oxygen is sued and more carbon dioxide is produced
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Outline the primary function of blood during exercise
Transport to and from various tissues (Gases, Nutrients, Waste, Hormones, Heat)
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Outline the composition of blood in the average body
55% plasma, Rest is a combination of platelets and blood cells
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Outline the primary role of Platelets
Assist in repair following an injury
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Outline the various roles of blood cells
Leucocytes help immune function, Erythrocytes make up 40-45% of blood volume (Hematocrit)
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Define Arteries
These vessels that are relatively large in diameter, thick muscular walls, considerable pressure exerted, transport blood away from the heart
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Define Capillaries
Narrow vessels, thin walls, they form an extensive branching network, through tissues, the site of exchange
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Define Veins
Deliver deoxygenated blood back to the heart, less muscular and fibrous, contain valves to prevent back-flow
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Define Pulmonary Circulation
Delivers deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs for oxygenation and then back to the left side of the heart
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Define Systemic Circulation
Delivers oxygenated blood from the left side of the heart to other tissues and then delivers deoxygenated blood back to the right side of the heart
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Describe the composition of the Heart
A four-chamber double-pump system, each side with its own atrium and ventricle, has a primary (sinotrial node) and secondary pacemaker (atrioventricular node)
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Describe the Cardiac Cycle
The left and right sides work in parallel simultaneously, The atriums receive blood from a vein and pushes it into the ventricles, the ventricle pushes it into the arteries
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Explain the role of the valves in the heart
Vaves between chambers open and close by force in response to a sequence of muscle contractions, the valves ensure that the system operates in only one direction
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Explain the role of the Sinotrial Node
To initiate the sequential contractions of the chambers by sending an impulse to the atrioventricular node, causing simultaneous contraction
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Define Systolic Blood Pressure
The force exerted by blood on arterial walls during ventricular contraction
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Define Diastolic Blood Pressure
The force exerted by blood on arterial walls during ventricular relaxation
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Outline the change in blood flow distribution during exercise
The muscles become first priority as more nutrients and oxygen are required and more heat needs to be removed, blood flow is restricted to other vital organs
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Define Cardiac Output
(Heart Rate x Stroke Volume) / 1000
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Explain the relationship between Cardiac Output, Heart Rate and Stroke Volume
In order to achieve the increase in cardiac output the heart rate and stroke volume must both increase until they reach their respective maximums
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Explain Cardiovascular Drift
During prolonged sub-maximal exercise at a fixed intensity the cardiac output stays constant, however eventually the heart rate starts to increase progressively
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Define VO2 Max
The maximum amount of oxygen and individual can utilize whilst performing dynamic exercise
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Outline the difference between gender in VO2 Max
Lower in females (Body composition, higher percentage of non-oxygen-using body fat, hemoglobin concentration
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Outline the difference between age in VO2 Max
Absolute VO2 Max increases according to patterns in growth, peaking in the early 20's for Males and Mid-Teens for Females, Relative Values are similar across all ages
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How does training increase VO2 Max?
Main response is an increase in Stroke Volume, The Heart Rate Respons is lowered at sub-maximal intensities, Maximum Heart Rate is unchanged but capacity is improved, Both Central and Peripheral changes
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Nasal Passage, Oral Cavity, Pharynx, Larynx, Trachea, Lungs, Ribs, Bronchi, Bronchioles, Alvelous, Diaphragm

Back

Outline the components of the Ventilatory system (Start most superior)

Card 3

Front

Diffusion = A substance will flow from an area of high pressure to one of lower pressure

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

For breathing to occur the air pressure must be lower in the lungs than in the atmosphere, therefore the Diaphragm pulls downward which increases the volume of the lungs, causing reduced pressure, causing the atmospheric air to flow into the lungs

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The process is passive as the Diaphragm just relaxes and recoils into the original position

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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