Sports Science: Musculoskeletal Anatomy

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Below of further away from the head
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Above or nearer to the head
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Nearer to where a limb attaches to the body
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Further away from where a limb attaches to the body
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Behind or nearer to the back
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In front of or nearer to the front
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Located inside or further away from the surface
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Located on or near the surface
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Further away from the midline of the body
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Closer to the midline of the body
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List bones in the Axial Skeleton
Skull, Ribs, Sternum, and Vertabral Column
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List bones in the Appendicular Skeleton
Pectoral Girdle, Pelvic Girdle, Arms and Leg bones
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Functions of the skeleton
Protection of Vital Organs, Support and maintenance of posture, Providing attachment points, Storage and release of minerals, Blood cell production, Storage of energy
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List the bones in the body (Start from the most Superior Point)
Skull, Clavicle, Scapula, Sternum, Ribs, Vertebral column, Humerus, Radius, Ulna, Pelvic Girdle, Carpals, Metacarpals, Phalanges, Femur, Patella, Fibula, Tarsals, Metatarsals, Phalanges
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Distinguish between the Cervical Vertebrae, Thoracic Vertebrae, Lumbar Vertebrae and the Sacral Vertebrae
Cervical = Smallest and most mobile (Located most superior) Thoracic = less mobile due to attachment at the ribs, Lumbar = biggest and strongest due to their role as weight-bearers, Sacral = transmit weight from body to pelvis and legs
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Outline the fused bones of the Pelvic Girdle
Ilium, Ischium and Pubis
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Outline the types of bone
Long Bones, Short Bones, Flat Bones, Irregular Bones
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Define Long Bones
Usually a long and cylindrical shaft and are enlarged at both ends, they can be large or small but must be longer than they are wide, most important bones fro movement
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Define Short Bones
Small and cube-shaped, usually articulate with one or more bone
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Define Flat Bones
Usually have curved surfaces, vary from being thick to thin, provide protection and area fro muscle attachment
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Define Irregular Bones
specialized shapes and functions (Vertebrae, Sacrum, Coccyx)
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Define the term Joint
Where two or more bones come into contact or articulate with each other
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Main function of a joint
Increase mobility of the body and limbs
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Outline the types of joints
Fibrous, Cartilaginous and Synovial
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Define Fibrous joints
Have a thin layer of fibrous tissue connecting the edges, no movement is allowed at these joints (Sutures in the Skull)
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Define Cartilaginous joints
Can be sperated by a fibrocartilage disc or by a thick layer of hyaline cartilage, limited movement at these joints
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Define Synovial joints
Most common, Most important for mobility
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The term for the space between the bones
Joint cavity or Articular Cavity
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Main functions of cartilage
Reduce Friction, Absorb shock, Protect bones
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List the types of Synovial joint
Gliding Joints, Hinge Joints, Pivot Joints, Condyloid Joints, Saddle Joint, Ball and Socket Joints
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Outline the types of Muscle
Skeletal, Cardiac and Smooth
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Define Skeletal Muscle
Under voluntary control, Striated appearance, Main function is mobility
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Define Cardiac Muscle
Or Heart muscle, Striated, Involuntary control
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Define Smooth Muscle
Lines the walls of blood vessels and hollow organs (Stomach, Intestines), Involuntary, Not striated
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Outline the Main functions of a muscle
Movement, Transport substances, Posture, Body Heat (Shivering)
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Outline the Properties of Muscle Tissue
Contractility, Extensibility, Elasticity
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Distinguish between the Origin and Insertion of a muscle
Origin = Most proximal attachment, Insertion = Most distal attachment
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Define Tendon
Strong strips that attach the muscle to the bone
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Define Ligament
Strong bands of tough fibrous tissue which are fixed to the bones in the joint
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Card 2


Above or nearer to the head



Card 3


Nearer to where a limb attaches to the body


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


Further away from where a limb attaches to the body


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Behind or nearer to the back


Preview of the back of card 5
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