Sports Massage

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What is massage?
Manipulation of soft tissues of the body.
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What is sports massage?
Form of massage which utilises specific techniques and stretches to help obtain maximal performance and physical condition with less chance of injury.
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What is a 'sports injury'?
A result from acute trauma or repetitive stress associated with athletic activities.
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What are the total contraindications of sports massage?
Cancer, acute injury (first 24-48 hrs), fever, first trimester of pregnancy, suspected DVT, hyperthermia, infectious disease, under the influence of alcohol/drugs, without consent.
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What are the localised contraindications of sports massage?
Skin disease, cuts/bruises/sunburn, scar tissue, fracture sites, varicose veins, recent operations, slipped disc, undiagnosed lumps, undiagnosed pain, diabetes, kidney infections, cancer, medical oedema, osteoporosis, arthritis, asthma, whiplash.
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What does R.I.C.E stand for?
Rest, ice, compression and elevation.
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Explain the importance of rest in the R.I.C.E principle?
Without rest, constant strain is placed on the area, which leads to increased inflammation, pain, possible further injury and soft tissue will take longer to heal.
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Effects of total inactivity on injury?
Decrease blood glow to the area, which will reduce the amount of metabolic wastage from the site of injury.
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Explain the importance of ice in the R.I.C.E principle?
It is a vasoconstrictor, so it can decrease or inhibit bleeding. It will decrease local tissue metabolism, neutralises local histamine, elevates threshold of pain and decreases muscle spasm.
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Explain the administration procedure of ice?
Place on injured site and let area cool for 10 - 15 minutes. Once area has cooled, remove ice pack. When injured area has warmed naturally, reapply ice. Repeat process several times over a 24-48 hour period.
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What are the precautions with the use of ice?
Frostbite, diabetes, compromised or poor circulation, cold sensitivity.
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Explain the importance of compression in the R.I.C.E principle?
Reduces the area of swelling due to the inflammatory process. Compression will enable more function, less pain and increase blood blow to restricted area.
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Explain the importance of elevation in the R.I.C.E principle?
Raising injured area above your heart will allow gravity to help reduce swelling by draining excess fluid. Elevate at 45° or more at intervals during first 24 hours after acute injury.
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What is thermotherapy?
The use of heat to promote blood flow to a area. Can be used with direct heat such as warm water.
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What are the benefits of thermotherapy?
Increase elasticity of collagen fibres in connective tissue.
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What can cause muscle injuries?
Direct trauma and indirect trauma.
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What is direct trauma?
Impact
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What is indirect trauma?
Overstretch or overload
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What are grade 1 muscle injuries?
Less than 10% fibres torn, non palpable, 2-3 weeks recovery, painful
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What are grade 2 muscle injuries?
10 - 50% of fibres torn, palpable, severity of pain depends on amount of fibres torn, 3 - 6 weeks recovery,
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What are grade 3 muscle injuries?
50-100% of fibres torn • Visible and palpable • Widespread bruising and ‘balling’ of the muscle • Referral and recovery of around 3 months
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What is scar tissue?
Scar tissue is made from a very brittle, inflexible fibrous material.
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What is cramp?
Painful involuntary contraction of a muscle or muscles, typically caused by fatigue or strain.
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What are the 2 theories of a stitch?
1. Lack of blood flow to the diaphragm and ischaemic pain. 2. Pulling onto the ligaments attaching into diaphragm
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What is the classification of tendon injuries?
Partial 1st Degree, 2nd Degree and 3rd Degree
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What can inflammation result in?
Tendonitis, tendonosis, tenosynovitis and tendoperiostitis.
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What is tendonitis?
Inflammatory process
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What is tendonosis?
Degenerative process
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What is tenosynovitis?
Inflammation of the tendon of sheeth
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What is tendoperiostitis?
Inflammation of the periosteal attachment
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Name the classifications for ligament injuries?
First degress, second degree and third degree sprain.
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What are the common sites for ligament injuries?
Knee, ankle, fingers and shoulder
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What is a first degree sprain?
The fibres of the ligament are stretched but intact.
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What is a second degree sprain?
Is a tear of part of a ligament, from a third to almost all its fibres.
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What is a third degree sprain?
Is a complete rupture of the ligament, sometimes avulsing a piece of bone.
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What are the types of bursitis?
Frictional, chemical and septic
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What is frictional bursitis?
Occurs when a tendon repeatedly moves over a bursa
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What is chemical bursitis?
Caused by a substance formed as a result of inflammatory or degenerative condition of tendons
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What is septic burisits?
Caused by bacterial infection either from blood or from external environment
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Name the phases of the healing process?
Inflammatory phase, proliferation phase and repair phase.
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Describe the inflammatory phase?
(First 72 hours). Characterised by the ‘Cardinal Signs’ of infammation
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What are the cardinal signs of inflammation?
Pain (due to chemicals released by damaged cells); swelling (due to an influx of fluid into the damaged region; redness (due to vasodilatation); heat (due to an increase in blood flow to the area)
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Describe the proliferation phase?
Up to 3 weeks (depending on severity). Involves the elimination of debris, regeneration of endothelial cells, production of fibroblasts, Collagen and other protein. Fibres are laid down in a haphazard manner.
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Describe the repair phase?
6 weeks – several months. Protein fibres and scar tissues orientate themselves in the direction in which pressure is applied. May take months to fully mature and achieve full strength
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What are the different types of effleurage?
Single handed, single reinforced, double handed, double alternating and forearm
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What are chemical effects of effluerage?
Vasodilation and local blood flow are increased as a result of histamine
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What are mechanical effects of effleurage?
Increased Venous flow, Increased lymphatic flow, Reduction in oedema
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What are reflex effects of effleurage?
Stimulates local cutaneous mechanoreceptors that moderate pain, Increase blood pressure initially, then decrease it.
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Effects of light and slow effleurage?
Soothing, good for lymphatic drainage
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Effects of medium - heavy pressure and faster speed effleurage?
Increased circulation & relaxation
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What is the benefit with the use of effleurage for the relationship between the patient and therapist?
Introduces touch to client, puts client at ease, increases blood flow, muscle relaxation, warming of tissues and palpating tissues
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What is petrissage?
Petrissage is used on deeper tissues for mobilising fluids, stretching muscle fibres and inducing relaxation.
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What are different forms of petrissage?
Kneading, muscle compressions, wringing, picking up and skin rolling.
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What are different types of kneading?
Palmar, thumb, fingertip, knuckle and open C.
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What are the effects of kneading?
Helps reduce muscle tone, Loosens adhesions of muscle fibers and connective tissue and stretches tissues, Increase circulation throughout tissue, Helps reduce ‘toxins’ (build up of metabolites), Decrease effects of fibrous thickening.
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What are muscle compressions?
Pressing and releasing of soft tissues with fingers and palms of hands
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What are the effects of muscle compressions?
Empties venous beds, ↑ capillary flow, Relaxation of hypertonic muscles, ↑ parasympathetic stimulation
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How do you perform muscle compressions?
Find an area of excessive tension, apply firm, direct pressure to tissue and hold for 10-15 seconds. Slowly reduce pressure.
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What is wringing?
Applying equal pressure on opposite sides of the tissue structure, lifting and pushing in opposite directions.
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What are the effects of wringing?
↓ stiffness due to ischaemia, Loosens adhered tissues, Stretches muscle bers - Maintains/Improves muscle tone, Improves circulation to nerves
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What is picking up?
Applying equal pressure on the sides of the tissue structure and lifting it away from the body and mobilising it.
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What are the effects of picking up?
Loosens adhesive muscle tissues, Stretches muscle fibers, Maintain/Improve tone, Increases circulation to nerves
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What is skin rolling?
Cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues are grasped and lifted away from underlying tissue and then rolled between fingers and pressure towards underlying structures
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Effects of skin rolling?
Loosens adhered cutaneous and fascial layers, Stretching fascia, ↑ superficial vascular flow
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What is tapotement?
Drumming hand movements on broad areas. This consists of a series of briskly applied percussive movements, using the hands alternately to strike or tap the muscles for an invigorating effect.
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What are the effects of tapotement?
Stimulates muscle, Helps maintain muscle tone, Helps improve muscle tone
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What are the different types of tapotement?
Cupping, hacking and pounding
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What is shaking and jostling?
A course vibration applied to a muscle group or limbs.
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What are the effects of deep friction?
Friction stimulates fibre orientation in re-generating connective tissue. Friction prevents adhesion formation. Stimulates nerve tissue and can tighten loose tissue.
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Give examples of conditions where deep friction can be effective.
Chronic scar tissue, Supraspinatus tendonosis, impingement syndrome, Tennis elbow or tendonosis of the common flexor or extensor tendons of the forearms, Achilles tendonosis, Plantar fasciitis
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How do you perform deep friction?
Ensure patient comfortable, locate area of scar tissue, apply firm reinforced pressure and move fingers transversely over tissue for 60 seconds. Release pressure and allow rest for 30 seconds. Repeat for 10 minutes.
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Aims of Pre-Event Massage
To create a state of readiness of the muscle by stimulating circulation, reducing tension in tight muscle groups, increasing flexibility of muscle groups, decreasing anxiety and enhancing a state of focus and concentration.
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Guidelines for Pre-Event Massage
Focus on circulation enhancement, Massage techniques should be light, Avoidance of all techniques that are painful, eg deep friction. Keep rhythmic and upbeat pace. Keep session short 15-20mins. Emphasis should be placed on muscle groups used.
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Aims of Post-Event Massage
Assist in the cool down process, Relax tight muscle groups, Stimulate circulation, Reduce potential soreness.
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What techniques can be used for post-event massage?
Effeurage, Light Petrissage (wringing, muscle compressions, ‘Picking up’), Shaking/Rolling, Passive stretching
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Guidelines for Post-Event Massage
Do not massage someone who says they feel ill. Be temperature conscious re over heating and chilling. Have water ready to avoid dehydration. Be gentle and keep the pressure light. Do not allow pressure to cause pain.
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What to look for in someone with hyperthermia?
Excessive sweating, Shivering or chilling, Dry skin, Nausea, Unsteady gait, Lack of focus, Extreme fatigue, Excessive cramping
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What is posture?
The relationship between different parts of the body.
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What is postural examination?
Observing a client in an attempt to notice what these relationships might be.
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Why should you carry out a postural examination?
To get more information ... to save time ... to serve as a benchmark ... to demonstrate caring/professionalism
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How should you carry out a postural assessment?
With client consent ... in a warm environment ... with the client standing normally, in a relaxed position ... using a checklist
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What is the Posterior Checklist for a Postural Examination?
Head/neck tilt, head rotation, level of shoulders, shoulder bulk, spinal alignment, skin creases, elbow position, thigh/calf bulk, varum/valgus, foot position.
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What is the Side-View Checklist for a Postural Examination?
Forward head posture? Shoulders protracted? Noticable kyphosis? Lumbar spine lordotic or flat? Knee position whether flexed, normal or hyperextended?
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Card 2

Front

What is sports massage?

Back

Form of massage which utilises specific techniques and stretches to help obtain maximal performance and physical condition with less chance of injury.

Card 3

Front

What is a 'sports injury'?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the total contraindications of sports massage?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the localised contraindications of sports massage?

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